BCJ582 Final examination questions and answers

November 25, 2022| admin

BCJ582 Final examination questions and answers

 

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BCJ582 Final examination questions and answers

 

 

Relapse prevention programs for sex offenders are designed to ______.

 

 

incapacitate offenders so that they are unable to reoffend

 

 

provide work opportunities so that offenders will be too busy to reoffend

 

 

prevent reoffending through chemical castration

 

 

teach offenders ways to avoid high-risk situations, or cope with high risk situations that cannot be avoided so that reoffending will be less likely

 

 

Personality characteristics of severely antisocial offenders present challenges for which component of treatment?

 

 

administering pharmaceutical treatment

 

 

creating a therapeutic alliance

 

 

providing skills training

 

 

encouraging present centered thinking

 

 

Issues of formation of trusting relationships, delays of gratification, separation and individuation, and “working through” are primarily examples of which family therapy model?

 

 

communications

 

 

psychodynamic

 

 

structural

 

 

social learning

 

 

_________ introduces positive reinforcements, in which deviant fantasies are replaced with non-deviant fantasies.

 

 

Aversive therapy

 

 

Aversive reinforcement strategies

 

 

Masturbatory conditioning

 

 

Systematic role reinforcement conditioning

 

 

The DSM-5 indicates that prevalence rates of APD are between _______ to _______ of the general

 

 

 

 

1

 

 

 

population.

 

 

 

0.2%; 3.3%

 

 

1.2%; 5.5%

 

 

10.2%; 15.6%

 

 

20.2%; 25.3%

 

 

Outward Bound and Youth Wilderness Programs offer youth offenders opportunities to engage in socially acceptable group activities. Which of the following is NOT an opportunity provided by these programs?

 

 

money management

 

 

physical conditioning

 

 

team training

 

 

technical training

 

 

Classification subgrouping assists the correctional program in which of the following?

 

 

predictions about future behavior

 

 

identifying needs

 

 

planning treatment

 

 

all of the above

 

 

_________ is a behavioral strategy in which the client and the counselor agree on what behaviors will be expected from the client and what, in turn, the counselor will provide for the client as well as what other outcomes might occur.

 

 

Negative reinforcement

 

 

Positive reinforcement

 

 

Contingency or behavioral contracting

 

 

Token economy

 

 

Group counseling is a preferred mode of providing offender treatment because ______.

 

 

groups provide the offender with a wealth of new information gathered from interactions with other individuals

 

 

offenders challenge each other with feedback

 

 

peer group pressure and influence are inherently therapeutic

 

 

all of the above

 

 

 

 

2

 

 

 

According to research based on the CPAI-2000, a shortcoming found in at least 50 percent of all programs was ______.

 

 

clientpreservice assessment

 

 

staff characteristics

 

 

implementation

 

 

all of the above

 

 

Seeking Safety is a gender-responsive, cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy treatment program that specifically targets women who suffer from a dual diagnosis of ______.

 

 

substance abuse and post-traumatic stress disorder

 

 

substance abuse and manic depression

 

 

substance abuse and bipolar disorder

 

 

substance abuse and schizophrenia

 

 

Which of the following does NOT constitute a functional treatment component for delinquents?

 

 

fully-trained staff

 

 

appropriate recreational activities

 

 

strengthening their conscience by helping them to ignore their guilt feelings

 

 

exploitation of live events

 

 

Correctional staff should assign _______ to half-way houses once released from prison.

 

 

low-risk offenders

 

 

medium-risk offenders

 

 

high-risk offenders

 

 

none of the above

 

 

It is hoped clients will see goal behaviors modeled outside of treatment groups, but treatment efforts are often discouraged when ______.

 

 

parents and family members model aggressive behaviors

 

 

institutional staff model antisocial behaviors

 

 

peers encourage delinquents to revisit criminal behavior

 

 

all of the above

 

 

Forever Free is a gender-responsive cognitive-behavioral program which addresses ______.

 

 

 

 

 

 

3

 

 

 

antisocial attitudes

 

 

employment and financial independence

 

 

anger management

 

 

educational attainments

 

 

Motivational Interviewing is an approach that can be used by correctional counselors to _________.

 

 

enhance an offender’s intrinsic motivation to change

 

 

explore and resolve an offender’s ambivalence about change

 

 

elicit change talk from an offender

 

 

all of the above

 

 

Which of the following is TRUE of major depressive disorder?

 

 

those with this disorder experience a depressed mood almost every day

 

 

it is equally common in men and women

 

 

it is not a common inmate experience

 

 

it tends to be of low intensity

 

 

The statistical technique of meta-analysis ______.

 

 

corrects methodological problems of individual studies

 

 

allows the summarizing of results across studies

 

 

creates a statistic to gauge effectiveness of program types

 

 

all of the above

 

 

In the curriculum titled Problem Solving, participants are instructed on “the conflict cycle,” which helps them understand how ______.

 

 

to make the right choice of what to do

 

 

to define the problem and determine resolution

 

 

their thinking can lead to consequences

 

 

to differentiate facts from opinions

 

 

Why is validity regarding classification systems an ethical consideration?

 

 

Offenders can be profoundly affected by their correctional classification.

 

 

Risk assessments sometimes determine early prison release.

 

 

 

 

 

 

4

 

 

 

Prison classification systems determine whether an inmate will be placed in a minimum-custody facility or in a medium- or maximum-custody facility.

 

 

  1. all of the above

 

 

All of the following are recommended non-verbal expressions of approval of a client’s statement or behavior EXCEPT:

 

 

eye contact

 

 

smiling

 

 

a sharing of experiences

 

 

hugging

 

 

Burns states that by dwelling on negative details and leaving out the positive aspects, ______

 

 

occurs.

 

 

 

disqualifying

 

 

magnification

 

 

mental filtering

 

 

catastrophizing

 

 

The counselor’s praise of an inmate’s acquisition of a socially appropriate behavior is called ______.

 

 

vicarious reinforcement

 

 

external reinforcement

 

 

self-reinforcement

 

 

covert modeling reinforcement

 

 

A major ethical issue is seen in the counselor’s divided loyalties between ______.

 

 

practical concerns and ideals

 

 

institution and offender

 

 

theoretical concepts and practice

 

 

all of the above

 

 

______, developed by Maxwell Jones, was initially designed to assist returning prisoners of war after World War II.

 

 

Human potential seminars

 

 

Gestalt group therapy

 

 

Psychodrama

 

 

 

 

5

 

 

 

Milieu therapy

 

 

Which of the following is a type of symptom of dysfunctional self-regulation according to Ward and Hudson (2000)?

 

 

disinhibition, or loss of control over emotions/behavior

 

 

depressive symptoms

 

 

suicidality

 

 

identity disturbance, or persistently unstable self-image or sense of self

 

 

What are the implications of treating children according to psychoanalytic therapy?

 

 

staff should provide treatment in a loving and hygienic environment

 

 

focus on ego support through recreational activities

 

 

staff should exploit live events in day-to-day living

 

 

all of the above

 

 

The most successful substance abuse interventions are ______.

 

 

educational approaches

 

 

psychotherapy approaches

 

 

cognitive-behavioral approaches

 

 

confrontational approaches

 

 

Agencies could incur serious problems with treatment integrity if they ______.

 

 

omit adequate training

 

 

develop treatment manuals

 

 

implement the program as it was designed

 

 

maintain good relationships with the participants

 

 

All of the following are ways in which helping professionals can be sensitized to ethnic variations

 

 

EXCEPT:

 

 

 

suggesting ways in which the operating procedures of the criminal justice system come into conflict with the values and lifestyles of people from specific ethnic backgrounds

 

 

clarifying the likely sources of conflict between service providers and clients from specific ethnic groups

 

 

enrolling in a foreign language program to communicate better with a specific ethnic group

 

 

providing greater understanding of the specific needs of the people from specific backgrounds

 

 

 

 

6

 

 

 

All of the following are examples of problematic staff characteristics identified by the Correctional Program Assessment Inventory EXCEPT:

 

 

staff have large gaps of knowledge regarding criminological theories of criminal behavior

 

 

staff lack basic concepts of classical and operant conditioning

 

 

staff were authoritarian and often displayed favoritism

 

 

staff were hired based on characteristics instead of clinical experience and training

 

 

How do women often become involved in substance use?

 

 

through family members

 

 

through friends

 

 

through significant others

 

 

all of the above

 

 

The treatment implications of the risk principle include ______.

 

 

identifying high-, medium-, and low-risk offenders

 

 

directing intensive treatment efforts to high- and medium-risk offenders

 

 

refraining from assigning low-risk offenders to intensive interventions

 

 

all of the above

 

 

For a person to be considered intellectually disabled, his or her IQ score must be about ______ or below AND be accompanied by deficits in adaptive behavior.

 

 

100

 

 

85

 

 

70

 

 

50

 

 

When a behavioral therapist creates a situation for a client in which aversive elements are woven into a story involving a desired object, it is known as ______.

 

 

mini-phobia

 

 

negative reinforcement

 

 

covert sensitization

 

 

systematic desensitization

 

 

Treatment of psychopathy can be conducted in a group setting under all of the following conditions

 

 

EXCEPT:

 

 

 

 

 

7

 

 

 

A proportion of the participants must be non-psychopathic.

 

 

Entry to the group must be open.

 

 

The group must contain an equal amount of males and females.

 

 

Individuals who are further along in the stages of change must serve as learning models for those in earlier stages.

 

 

Which of the following is a criticism of person-centered therapy?

 

 

Offenders could misinterpret paraphrasing as tacit approval for their behavior.

 

 

The counselor may appear to be reinforcing inappropriate behavior.

 

 

Therapy does not address or confront the offender’s behavior.

 

 

all of the above

 

 

Transfer training ______.

 

 

helps clients to generalize newly learned behaviors outside of the treatment setting

 

 

includes role-playing in a variety of situations

 

 

may involve overlearning material

 

 

all of the above

 

 

______ focuses on stress management, distress acceptance, and emotional control.

 

 

Aversive therapy

 

 

Dialectical Behavioral Therapy

 

 

Social skills training

 

 

Psychoanalytic therapy

 

 

_________ is a therapeutic intervention that assists offenders’ ability to understand the feelings of others and challenges offenders’ cognitive distortions.

 

 

Empathy training

 

 

Role-playing

 

 

Covert desensitization

 

 

Aversion therapy

 

 

Intervention for psychopathic sex offenders should also include which type of strategy?

 

 

interpersonal-therapy

 

 

relapse prevention

 

 

 

 

8

 

 

 

socialization

 

 

incapacitation

 

 

In treating an offender who requires medication to control a mental disorder, which of the following professionals would be legally qualified to administer such a medication?

 

 

psychologist

 

 

clinical social worker

 

 

psychiatrist

 

 

psychometricist

 

 

What are the implications when staff do not conduct a thorough review of the literature and its effectiveness before implementing a proposed program?

 

 

they may repeat the mistakes of others

 

 

they may be chasing the latest panacea

 

 

they may be following a hunch

 

 

all of the above

 

 

The second level of communication, which can convey as much information as the verbal content of conversation, is known as ______.

 

 

nonverbal language

 

 

intracommunication

 

 

metacommunication

 

 

neocommunication

 

 

What can the counselor do to avoid extended debates with offenders?

 

 

point out the thinking errors that led to the offenders’ consequences

 

 

terminate the counseling session for the time being

 

 

point out the self-defeating nature of the offenders’ behavior

 

 

all of the above

 

 

Freud, Rogers, and others discouraged the use of family therapy because ______.

 

 

they were afraid that family secrets might be discussed

 

 

they saw such a move as contaminating the client-therapist relationship

 

 

longitudinal studies convinced them that family therapy was ineffective

 

 

 

 

 

 

9

 

 

 

international governing bodies refused to fund research on family studies

 

 

Most people who commit suicide ______.

 

 

never give any warning of what they plan to do

 

 

communicate their intent to a correctional counselor, but not to other inmates or family members

 

 

communicate their intent to other inmates or family members, either directly or indirectly

 

 

do so impulsively, with no time to give any warning

 

 

Penile plethysmography ______.

 

 

is controversial because its use involves the presentation of deviant stimuli

 

 

is one of the most reliable ways to determine whether a person is a sexual offender

 

 

measures a person’s arousal patterns by recording brain wave activity while the person sleeps

 

 

all of the above

 

 

The ______ model of substance abuse views alcoholism as a result of personal choice.

 

 

moral

 

 

temperance

 

 

educational

 

 

disease

 

 

_________ is the assessment tool that is used most frequently.

 

 

Psychopathy Checklist–Revised

 

 

Inventory of Psychopathic Traits

 

 

Structured Clinical Interview for Personality Disorders

 

 

Antisocial Personality Questionnaire

 

 

When counseling offenders in a group setting, it is important to know that they ______.

 

 

are all criminals

 

 

are all motivated to change

 

 

are often not motivated to change

 

 

love the warden

 

 

Major depressive disorder differs from dysthymia in that ______.

 

 

intermittent normal moods may last a few days or weeks in major depression, but not in dysthymia

 

 

 

 

10

 

 

 

major depressive disorder must include sexual dysfunction

 

 

major depressive disorder requires more symptoms and they are present for a longer duration than in dysthymia

 

 

dysthymia is of a longer duration than major depressive disorder

 

 

The primary goal of Albert Ellis’s Rational Emotive Therapy is to ______.

 

 

challenge and confront the client’s incorrect and maladaptive beliefs

 

 

identify maladaptive schemas or patterns of cognitive distortion that may be resulting in unhappiness and/or depression

 

 

expose clients to stress under controlled conditions so that they can gain more effective ways of coping

 

 

learn a functional approach to social problem solving

 

 

The defense mechanism of finding an acceptable reason for doing something unacceptable is known as ______.

 

 

rationalization

 

 

regression

 

 

denial

 

 

repression

 

 

In ______, one negative event is seen as a never-ending pattern of defeat.

 

 

all-or-nothing thinking

 

 

overgeneralization

 

 

magnification

 

 

shoulding

 

 

The function of the _________ is to balance the wishes of the _________, the social demands of

 

 

_________, and the requirements of one’s external environment.

 

 

 

superego; id; ego

 

 

ego; id; superego

 

 

id; ego; superego

 

 

id; superego; ego

 

 

According to the text, the major difference in family therapy models is primarily in their ______.

 

 

dislike of each other

 

 

 

 

11

 

 

 

accusations that the other has poorly constructed longitudinal studies

 

 

treatment focus, or the type of family problem that is addressed in therapy d. none of the above

 

 

The process by which family members distort the experiences of other members by denial or relabeling is known as ______.

 

 

metacommunication

 

 

mystification

 

 

the double bind

 

 

therapeutic paradox

 

 

The use of shock treatment is MOST closely associated with which of the following treatments?

 

 

covert sensitization

 

 

aversive imagery

 

 

aversion therapy

 

 

systematic reinforcement therapy

 

 

Which of the following is an example of a negative schizophrenic symptom?

 

 

hallucinations, both visual and auditory

 

 

emotional turmoil resulting from internal confusion

 

 

emotional unresponsiveness

 

 

delusions or thought disorders

 

 

Gender-responsive practices include ______.

 

 

gender-informed risk/needs assessments

 

 

female-specific programming

 

 

trauma-informed policies, supervision, and treatment

 

 

all of the above

 

 

Which of the following statements is NOT a technique used by the radical behavioral approach to substance abuse treatment?

 

 

free association

 

 

stimuli manipulation

 

 

community reinforcement

 

 

 

 

12

 

 

 

gaining alternative sources of pleasure

 

 

Which of the following is NOT a facet of the four-factor model of psychopathy?

 

 

relational

 

 

affective

 

 

lifestyle

 

 

antisocial

 

 

Domains on the Gender Informed Practices Assessment include ______.

 

 

leadership and philosophy

 

 

staffing and training

 

 

assessment and classification

 

 

all of the above

 

 

In the final stage of Postconventional Reasoning ______.

 

 

decisions are predicated on the desire to avoid punishment

 

 

decisions reflect a desire to maintain social institutions

 

 

ethical principles and respect for others are used to generate moral decisions

 

 

moral reasoning reflects an application of the “Golden Rule”

 

 

Many counselors are reluctant to build personal involvement with offenders because they ______.

 

 

have very little time to do so due to their heavy caseloads

 

 

are aware that personal involvement with offenders is unethical

 

 

fear manipulation and exploitation from the offenders

 

 

fear becoming overly emotionally involved with the offenders

 

 

Cognitive skills programs that include Living Skills have provided offenders with a foundation for later modules such as ______.

 

 

community reintegration

 

 

parenting skills

 

 

managing their finances

 

 

all of the above

 

 

Which group of offenders may not respond well to a system of rewards and punishments?

 

 

 

 

 

 

13

 

 

 

persons with psychopathic personality traits

 

 

children diagnosed with conduct disorder

 

 

adults diagnosed with antisocial personality disorder

all of the above

 

 

The ______ maintains that needs related to future offending should receive high priority as we match offenders to programs.

 

 

risk principle

 

 

needs principle

 

 

responsivity principle

 

 

gender-responsive principle

 

 

Which of the following is not a component to managing severely antisocial offenders within correctional institutions?

 

 

diagnosis

 

 

solitary confinement

 

 

supervision

 

 

treatment

 

 

The American Correctional Association recommends supplementing needs assessments with

 

 

______.

 

 

 

presentence investigations

 

 

medical reports

 

 

psychological evaluations

 

 

all of the above

 

 

Skill Streaming is a component of a treatment package called ______.

 

 

Attribution Replacement Training

 

 

Aggression Replacement Training

 

 

Anger Replacement Training

 

 

Antisocial Replacement Training

 

 

Which of the following variables determines how much influence a model will have?

 

 

the functional value of the behaviors observed

 

 

 

 

 

 

14

 

 

 

the observer’s perceptual set toward the model

 

 

characteristics of the model, such as attractiveness d. all of the above

 

 

Which of the following is NOT a new direction in the evolution of correctional classification and assessment?

 

 

internal personality assessments

 

 

gender-responsive correctional classification and assessment

 

 

development of risk models for specific types of offenders

 

 

seamless classification systems

 

 

There are _________ major diagnostic classes in the DSM-5.

 

 

11

 

 

21

 

 

31

 

 

41

 

 

Which of the following is NOT an example of psychological classification?

 

 

Interpersonal Maturity Level (I-level)

 

 

Salient Factor Score

 

 

Adult Internal Management System (AIMS)

 

 

Megargee MMPI-based typology

 

 

Which of the following represents a major problem in the area of correction recreation?

 

 

an increase in physical conflicts among inmates

 

 

the inability of physically disabled offenders to participate

 

 

the perception that the recreation specialist is no more than an activity coordinator

 

 

the current debate about the effectiveness of recreation as treatment

 

 

Which of the following is a domain of the six-dimensional model of psychopathy?

 

 

attachment

 

 

cognitive

 

 

emotional

 

 

 

 

 

 

15

 

 

 

all of the above

 

 

Establishing a meaningful relationship with the offender ______.

 

 

is important to establishing interpersonal boundaries

 

 

is essential to successful counseling

 

 

prevents the counselor from confronting the offender with the irresponsible decisions that led to his or her incarceration

 

 

none of the above

 

 

According to the ______ approach, substance abuse may be an attempt to “medicate” feelings of emptiness, rage, or depression (Wurmser, 1984).

 

 

radical behavioral

 

 

social learning

 

 

cognitive-behavioral

 

 

psychodynamic

 

 

The primary focus of the institutional counselor known as the _________ is often to help inmates survive the stresses of prison life.

 

 

probation officer

 

 

parole officer

 

 

case manager

 

 

prison chaplain

 

 

Collateral information can be enlightening to a counselor because ______.

 

 

many offenders are masters of deceit

 

 

collateral information can help present a comprehensive impression of the offender

 

 

offenders tend to present themselves to their counselors in a favorable light

 

 

all of the above

 

 

Involving family members in the rehabilitation of offenders makes sense for which of the following reasons?

 

 

it curbs family violence

 

 

it assists an offender on his or her return to society

 

 

both a and b

 

 

none of the above

 

 

 

 

16

 

 

 

Andrews and Bonta noted a number of common criminogenic needs. Which of the following is NOT a criminogenic need?

 

 

antisocial associates

 

 

antisocial values and attitudes

 

 

antisocial personality characteristics

 

 

family history of antisocial behavior

 

 

Which of the following items is NOT examined when assessing a client’s sexual development?

 

 

toilet training experiences

 

 

adjustment to puberty

 

 

history of sexual victimization

 

 

attitudes toward sex

 

 

Which of the following is NOT an example of a family therapy model?

 

 

psychoanalytic family therapy

 

 

classical conditioned family therapy

 

 

structural family therapy

 

 

communications family therapy

 

 

Which of the following is NOT a component of The Containment Approach?

 

 

an underlying philosophy that places a priority to offender protection

 

 

reliance upon multiagency coordination and cooperation

 

 

an offender supervision model that emphasizes risk management individualized to the needs of each sex offender

 

 

a consistent set of multi-agency policies and protocols

 

 

Studies of the use of family therapy within the criminal justice system have noted that this treatment approach is used primarily with ______.

 

 

stalkers and perverts

 

 

military prisoners at Ft. Leavenworth

 

 

alcoholics and other drug abusers

 

 

child molesters and comatose inmates

 

 

What special needs do female offenders often present to counselors?

 

 

 

 

 

 

17

 

 

 

problems with their relationships with other offenders b. problems with their relationships with their children c. problems caused by physical abuse in their past

both b and c

 

 

Which of the following is a common pathway female offenders experience?

 

 

the low self-esteem pathway

 

 

the financial pathway

 

 

the relational pathway

 

 

the depression and anxiety pathway

 

 

Client responsivity characteristics important to substance abuse include ______.

 

 

motivation for change

 

 

comorbidity

 

 

ethnicity and gender

 

 

all of the above

 

 

Which characteristic is NOT descriptive of desirable curricula for female correctional populations?

 

 

gender-responsive

 

 

psychoanalytic

 

 

cognitive-behavioral

 

 

based on the principles of effective treatment intervention

 

 

All of the following are ways in which the modeling provided by others facilitates our own learning

 

 

EXCEPT:

 

 

 

demonstrating how to perform a new behavior

 

 

providing a social context for who to perform the behavior with

 

 

prompting or showing us how to use the behavior at the appropriate times

 

 

motivating us, or increasing our desire to use a new skill or behavior

 

 

In a therapeutic relationship, a correctional counselor exhibits ______.

 

 

congruence

 

 

sympathy

 

 

 

 

 

 

18

 

 

 

distant boundaries

 

 

authoritarian power

 

 

In Maletzky’s 1980 study using covert sensitization in the treatment of exhibitionists, _________

 

 

percent of the clients learned to eliminate all overt exhibitionist behaviors.

 

 

 

47

 

 

68

 

 

87

 

 

98

 

 

Which of the following approaches to offender treatment are recommended by the principles of effective interventions?

 

 

radical behavioral, cognitive-behavioral, and social learning

 

 

psychodynamic, operant conditioning, and family therapy

 

 

Guided Group Interaction, nondirective phenomenological, and restitution

 

 

self-help, object relations, and psychodrama

 

 

In recent years, ______ have been viewed as the “gold standard” for determining whether or not a program is effective in reducing offender recidivism.

 

 

systematic reviews

 

 

quantitative analyses

 

 

meta-analyses

 

 

case studies

 

 

All of the following are reasons why continuity of care is needed EXCEPT:

 

 

when the offender has a chronic problem

 

 

when the offender is not motivated to change

 

 

when the offender is being “handed off” to a different agency

 

 

when the offender begins a re-entry program

 

 

Which of the following are clear advantages of the use of group counseling?

 

 

Groups may be open or closed.

 

 

Groups are more economical and provide input to inmates.

 

 

Groups provide inmates with structured and unstructured experiences.

 

 

 

 

 

 

19

 

 

 

  1. all of the above

 

 

Guided Group Interaction programs were initially designed for which of the following groups?

 

 

delinquents

 

 

adult offenders

 

 

addict-run drug addiction groups

 

 

all of the above

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