Psychological Science 5th Edition Test Bank

 

CHAPTER 01: The Science of Psychology CHAPTER 01: The Science of Psychology

MULTIPLE CHOICE

  1. Which of the following is the best definition of psychological science?A. the study of the brain and its functionB. the study of the mind, the brain, and thought processesC. the study of the mind, the brain, and behaviorD. the study of the mind, the psyche, and behavior

ANS: C DIF: Easy REF: 1.1 What Is Psychological Science?OBJ: 1.1A NAT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in PsychologyMSC: Remembering
2. Psychological science is the study of:A. the mind. C. behavior.B. the brain. D. all of the above.

ANS: D DIF: Easy REF: 1.1 What Is Psychological Science?OBJ: 1.1A NAT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in PsychologyMSC: Remembering
3. Trying to understand the relationship between the actions of neurons and a thought is an example of the connection between:A. the brain and the mind. C. genes and the mind.B. nature and nurture. D. the brain and emotion.

ANS: A DIF: Moderate REF: 1.1 What Is Psychological Science?OBJ: 1.1A NAT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in PsychologyMSC: Applying
4. Based on your textbook’s definition of psychology, which statement best reflects the relationship between the mind and the brain?A. The brain is the same thing as the mind.B. The brain influences the mind.C. The brain is unrelated to the mind.D. The brain reflects the mind.

ANS: B DIF: Moderate REF: 1.1 What Is Psychological Science?OBJ: 1.1A NAT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in PsychologyMSC: Applying
5. Barry and Candace are disagreeing. Barry states that psychology is the study of the mind. Candace believes that psychology is the science of behavior. Given your knowledge of psychology, how would you resolve this argument?A. Barry is correct. Psychology only studies the mind.B. Candace is correct. Psychology only studies behavior.C. Both are correct. Psychology studies both the mind and behavior.D. Both are incorrect. Psychology only studies emotions.

ANS: C DIF: Difficult REF: 1.1 What Is Psychological Science?OBJ: 1.1A NAT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in PsychologyMSC: Understanding
6. Allanah is a psychology major. Which of the following best describes what Allanah will learn about?A. the structure and function of the brainB. mental disorders and their treatmentsC. feelings and other subjective statesD. the mind, the brain, and behavior

ANS: D DIF: Easy REF: 1.1 What Is Psychological Science?OBJ: 1.1A NAT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in PsychologyMSC: Understanding
7. For much of its history, psychologists focused mostly on:A. the brain. C. behaviors.B. disorders. D. the mind.

ANS: C DIF: Moderate REF: 1.1 What Is Psychological Science?OBJ: 1.1A NAT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in PsychologyMSC: Remembering
8. Which of the following is an example of a psychologist who is studying the mind?A. Dr. Chu, who studies how weather influences children’s actions on the playgroundB. Dr. Well, who studies neural activity during sleep cycles of elderly adultsC. Dr. Mann, who studies the accuracy of traumatic memories over timeD. Dr. East, who studies the facial expressions of relationship partners during a fight

ANS: C DIF: Difficult REF: 1.1 What Is Psychological Science?OBJ: 1.1A NAT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 5, Professional DevelopmentMSC: Applying
9. Which of the following is an example of a psychologist who is studying the brain?A. Dr. Fields, who studies the purchasing habits of impulsive individualsB. Dr. Joe, who studies how neural activity changes as newborn babies developC. Dr. Perez, who studies how our feelings can influence our thought processesD. Dr. Ladd, who studies the training activities of professional athletes

ANS: B DIF: Moderate REF: 1.1 What Is Psychological Science?OBJ: 1.1A NAT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 5, Professional DevelopmentMSC: Applying
10. Which of the following is an example of a psychologist who is studying behavior?A. Dr. Wick, who studies how certain smells can trigger certain feelingsB. Dr. Woods, who studies patterns of neural activity related to drug useC. Dr. Paul, who studies the thought processes involved in decision makingD. Dr. Hull, who studies the facial expressions of relationship partners during a fight

ANS: D DIF: Moderate REF: 1.1 What Is Psychological Science?OBJ: 1.1A NAT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 5, Professional DevelopmentMSC: Applying
11. According to your text, amiable skepticism is an important element in a type of reasoning called:A. scholarly inquiry. C. analytic argumentation.B. nay-sayerism. D. critical thinking.

ANS: D DIF: Easy REF: 1.1 Psychological Science Teaches Critical Thinking OBJ: 1.1BNAT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking MSC: Remembering
12. Which of the following is a characteristic of a good consumer of scientific research?A. open to new ideas C. wary of scientific findingsB. carefully considers the facts D. all of the above

ANS: D DIF: Easy REF: 1.1 Psychological Science Teaches Critical Thinking OBJ: 1.1BNAT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking MSC: Remembering
13. Critical thinking is best defined as thinking that:A. is systematic and reasonable.B. is open-minded and creative.C. criticizes others’ opinions.D. uses inferences but does not solve problems.

ANS: A DIF: Moderate REF: 1.1 Psychological Science Teaches Critical Thinking OBJ: 1.1BNAT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking MSC: Remembering
14. Which of the following is an example of using critical thinking and scientific reasoning?A. believing that sugar causes ADHD because you feel hyper after eating a candy barB. concluding that listening to Mozart improves learning in children after reading an article about this topic in a popular magazineC. using a personal example to show how a psychological principle must be wrongD. conducting research to investigate the effectiveness of left brain/right brain games in improving memory

ANS: D DIF: Moderate REF: 1.1 Psychological Science Teaches Critical Thinking OBJ: 1.1BNAT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking MSC: Applying
15. Why is critical thinking important in evaluating psychological research?A. Researchers deliberately lie about their research findings.B. There might be significant limitations to the research findings.C. Research findings are rarely influenced by political and personal agendas.D. There is always a single clear explanation and the researchers may not have found it.

ANS: B DIF: Moderate REF: 1.1 Psychological Science Teaches Critical Thinking OBJ: 1.1BNAT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking MSC: Applying
16. Which of the following is an important goal of your psychology textbook?A. to teach you how to be a therapist by using methods of psychologyB. to provide you with an education about the methods of psychological scienceC. to help you define normal versus abnormal behavior so you can recognize mental illnessD. to help you predict how people will interact in novel situations

ANS: B DIF: Easy REF: 1.1 Psychological Science Teaches Critical Thinking OBJ: 1.1BNAT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology MSC: Remembering
17. The difference between using critical thinking explanations and everyday explanations for psychological phenomena is that:A. critical thinking relies on evidence and scientific support for making conclusions.B. everyday explanations rely on evidence and scientific support for making conclusions.C. critical thinking relies on personal examples more than scientific evidence for making conclusions.D. everyday explanations rely on personal examples and scientific evidence for making conclusions.

ANS: A DIF: Easy REF: 1.1 Psychological Science Teaches Critical Thinking OBJ: 1.1BNAT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking MSC: Remembering
18. Taj is writing a paper on global warming. He only includes research findings that support his own beliefs about global warming because he thinks that all the contradictory findings must be the result of flawed research. This is an example of:A. misunderstanding or not using statistics.B. hindsight bias.C. a failure to accurately judge source credibility.D. the confirmation bias.

ANS: D DIF: Difficult REF: 1.1 Psychological Reasoning Examines How People Typically ThinkOBJ: 1.1C NAT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking MSC: Applying
19. You are asked to write a newspaper article on a controversial political topic and you want to make sure you are not influenced by the confirmation bias. Which of the following should you do in order to avoid the confirmation bias?A. focus mainly on evidence that you find on your favorite news websiteB. place equal importance on evidence that supports and contradicts your own beliefsC. focus mainly on evidence that supports your own beliefs, since it is the most accurate researchD. place equal importance on evidence you find online and in textbooks

ANS: B DIF: Moderate REF: 1.1 Psychological Reasoning Examines How People Typically ThinkOBJ: 1.1C NAT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking MSC: Applying
20. Which of the following is one factor that contributes to the confirmation bias?A. selective emotionality, which is the tendency to better remember information that is negativeB. selective emotionality, which is the tendency to better remember information that is positiveC. selective memory, which is the tendency to better remember information that supports our existing beliefsD. selective memory, which is the tendency to better remember information that goes against our existing beliefs

ANS: C DIF: Moderate REF: 1.1 Psychological Reasoning Examines How People Typically ThinkOBJ: 1.1C NAT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking MSC: Understanding
21. A drug company wants to create an advertisement for a new antidepressant drug. Using your knowledge of source credibility, which of the following advertisements would be most persuasive?A. an ad that features a celebrity on the set of his or her new pirate movieB. an ad that features an actor portraying a doctorC. an ad that features the CEO of the drug companyD. an ad that features a famous person who has struggled with depression

ANS: B DIF: Difficult REF: 1.1 Psychological Reasoning Examines How People Typically ThinkOBJ: 1.1C NAT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking MSC: Applying
22. A drug company is creating a commercial for a new heart medication. Since the evidence for this drug is weak, they focus on the expertise of the drug company instead of the research findings. This strategy is known as:A. taking mental shortcuts. C. appeals to authority.B. the hindsight bias. D. the confirmation bias.

ANS: C DIF: Easy REF: 1.1 Psychological Reasoning Examines How People Typically ThinkOBJ: 1.1C NAT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking MSC: Understanding
23. Which of the following is NOT a reason why errors and biases occur in our thinking processes?A. People are motivated to use their intelligence.B. People want to make sense of events that happen around them.C. The human brain is highly efficient at finding patterns between things.D. The human brain is highly efficient at processing multiple streams of information.

ANS: D DIF: Moderate REF: 1.1 Psychological Reasoning Examines How People Typically ThinkOBJ: 1.1C NAT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking MSC: Remembering
24. Which of the following is NOT one of the major biases in thinking described in your text?A. misunderstanding or not using statisticsB. seeing relationships that do not existC. failing to accurately judge source credibilityD. ignoring other people’s perspectives

ANS: D DIF: Easy REF: 1.1 Psychological Reasoning Examines How People Typically ThinkOBJ: 1.1C NAT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking MSC: Remembering
25. Which of the following is an example of the “seeing relationships that do not exist” bias in thinking described in your text?A. Abby thinks she is an above-average dancer, an above-average singer, and an above-average student, even though everyone else thinks she is just average.B. Tony underestimates the likelihood of bicycle accidents because he cannot easily recall one that happened recently.C. Tim thinks that he must eat pizza right before class if he wants to do well on his exam.D. Ziva believes that she is more likely to make her next shot, because she has made the last three in a row.

ANS: C DIF: Difficult REF: 1.1 Psychological Reasoning Examines How People Typically ThinkOBJ: 1.1C NAT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking MSC: Applying
26. Which of the following is an example of the “misunderstanding or not using statistics” bias in thinking described in your text?A. Matt thinks he did well in psychology because he is intelligent, but failed chemistry because his teacher was incompetent.B. Meredith overestimates the likelihood of airplane accidents because she can easily recall one that happened recently.C. Michael thinks that he must wear his lucky gym shorts in order to win the game.D. John believes that a coin that has landed on heads three times in a row is more likely to be heads the next time it is flipped.

ANS: D DIF: Difficult REF: 1.1 Psychological Reasoning Examines How People Typically ThinkOBJ: 1.1C NAT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking MSC: Applying
27. Which of the following is an example of the “taking mental shortcuts” bias in thinking described in your text?A. Jack thinks he got an A on his essay because he is a great writer, but got a D on his communications project because the instructions were too confusing.B. Rose overestimates how often cruise ships sink because she can vividly remember the sinking of the Titanic.C. Wade believes that he will be funnier on stage if he eats fried chicken before he goes on stage to perform.D. Michael thinks that he must wear his lucky gym shorts in order to win the game.

ANS: B DIF: Difficult REF: 1.1 Psychological Reasoning Examines How People Typically ThinkOBJ: 1.1C NAT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking MSC: Applying
28. Which of the following is a correct explanation for why the hindsight bias exists?A. Once we know the outcome, we pretend we knew it was going to happen to make ourselves feel better.B. Once we know the outcome, we reinterpret old evidence to make sense of that outcome.C. Before we know the outcome, we ignore evidence that contradicts what we believe.D. Before we know the outcome, we have too much evidence to consider to make an accurate prediction.

ANS: B DIF: Difficult REF: 1.1 Psychological Reasoning Examines How People Typically ThinkOBJ: 1.1C NAT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking MSC: Understanding
29. On his way to the basketball game, Tom says he cannot predict who will win. After his team wins the game, Tom says he knew they were going to win because their defense always plays well together. This is an example of:A. taking mental shortcuts. C. the self-serving bias.B. the hindsight bias. D. the confirmation bias.

ANS: B DIF: Moderate REF: 1.1 Psychological Reasoning Examines How People Typically ThinkOBJ: 1.1C NAT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking MSC: Applying
30. Which of the following is a benefit of using heuristics and mental shortcuts?A. They can lead to reasonably good decisions without too much effort.B. They can lead to better decisions compared to effortful decision-making strategies.C. They can lead to poor decisions but are very easy to use.D. They can lead to poor decisions, but we outgrow them as we get older.

ANS: A DIF: Easy REF: 1.1 Psychological Reasoning Examines How People Typically ThinkOBJ: 1.1C NAT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking MSC: Understanding
31. Isaac is trying to decide how often shark attacks happen. He quickly remembers all the shark attack shows he saw on television last week, so he decides that they must be common. Isaac’s overestimation of the rate of shark attacks is an example of:A. the hindsight bias.B. taking mental shortcuts.C. the self-serving bias.D. failing to accurately judge source credibility.

ANS: B DIF: Moderate REF: 1.1 Psychological Reasoning Examines How People Typically ThinkOBJ: 1.1C NAT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking MSC: Applying
32. A recent survey found that 80 percent of high school students believed that they were above average on reading, writing, and math skills. Given that only 50 percent can be above average on any dimension, this is an example of the ________ bias.A. hindsight C. confirmationB. self-serving D. egocentric

ANS: B DIF: Difficult REF: 1.1 Psychological Reasoning Examines How People Typically ThinkOBJ: 1.1C NAT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking MSC: Applying
33. When Brent wins his track race, he says he won because of his athletic skills and hard work. When Brent loses his next race, he says he lost because the track was slippery and he lost his balance. This is an example of the ________ bias.A. confirmation C. egocentricB. hindsight D. self-serving

ANS: D DIF: Moderate REF: 1.1 Psychological Reasoning Examines How People Typically ThinkOBJ: 1.1C NAT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking MSC: Applying
34. Kaley has a big presentation at work. Afterward, her boss tells her she did a terrible job and fires her immediately. Given what you know about the self-serving bias, how will Kaley explain this situation?A. I did poorly on this presentation because I am stupid.B. I did poorly on this presentation because the topic was confusing and my boss did not give me enough time to complete it.C. I did well on this presentation because I am a good public speaker and I am smart.D. I did well on this presentation because it was easy and my boss did most of the work.

ANS: B DIF: Difficult REF: 1.1 Psychological Reasoning Examines How People Typically ThinkOBJ: 1.1C NAT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking MSC: Applying
35. According to your text, the ancient Chinese philosopher Confucius emphasized each of the following psychological topics EXCEPT:A. human development. C. intelligence.B. interpersonal relations. D. education.

ANS: C DIF: Easy REF: 1.2 What Are the Scientific Foundations of Psychology? OBJ: 1.2ANAT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology MSC: Analyzing
36. Yuko remarks that she is interested in child development and educational psychology. Based on your text’s discussion, Yuko’s interests echo the:A. emphases of Confucius. C. thoughts of Greek scholars.B. writings of da Vinci. D. writings of early Muslim thinkers.

ANS: A DIF: Moderate REF: 1.2 What Are the Scientific Foundations of Psychology? OBJ: 1.2ANAT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology MSC: Understanding
37. Psychology developed into a discipline in:A. ancient China.B. nineteenth-century Europe.C. classical Greece.D. colonial America, in the eighteenth century.

ANS: B DIF: Easy REF: 1.2 What Are the Scientific Foundations of Psychology? OBJ: 1.2ANAT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology MSC: Remembering
38. Your text traces the nature/nurture debate back to:A. the Chinese philosopher Confucius.B. the ancient Egyptians.C. Greek philosophers, such as Plato and Aristotle.D. the Renaissance philosopher Descartes.

ANS: C DIF: Easy REF: 1.2 The Nature/Nurture Debate Has a Long History OBJ: 1.2BNAT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology MSC: Remembering
39. The nature in the nature/nurture debate refers to either ________ factors affecting human psychological development.A. biological or behavioral C. biological or environmentalB. behavioral or environmental D. formal or natural

ANS: C DIF: Easy REF: 1.2 The Nature/Nurture Debate Has a Long History OBJ: 1.2BNAT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology MSC: Remembering
40. According to the nature/nurture debate, nature states that individual psychological characteristics are a result of:A. education. C. experiences.B. biological influences. D. culture.

ANS: B DIF: Easy REF: 1.2 The Nature/Nurture Debate Has a Long History OBJ: 1.2BNAT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology MSC: Remembering
41. With respect to the nature/nurture debate, psychological scientists now believe that:A. nature is the most important factor in understanding the mind, the brain, and behavior.B. the mind, the brain, and behavior are largely a matter of nurture.C. both nature and nurture are important in understanding the mind, the brain, and behavior.D. the issue is largely irrelevant to understanding the mind, the brain, and behavior.

ANS: C DIF: Easy REF: 1.2 The Nature/Nurture Debate Has a Long History OBJ: 1.2BNAT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking MSC: Remembering
42. A little boy is running around a grocery store, screaming, yelling, and throwing cans. His parents cannot control him. A strict nurture-only theorist might say:A. “His parents must have been really active when they were children.”B. “He cannot help that he was born wild.”C. “Even if he was born wild, his parents should be able to control him.”D. “Boys evolved to act this way when they are young.”

ANS: C DIF: Difficult REF: 1.2 The Nature/Nurture Debate Has a Long History OBJ: 1.2BNAT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking MSC: Applying
43. Your friend gets in a traumatic car accident and the doctors are worried that she may develop posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, your friend seems to be coping well and is not showing any PTSD symptoms. How would a strict nature-only theorist explain this situation?A. Your friend inherited a genetic resilience against stressors that can lead to PTSD.B. Your friend must have a good support network that prevented her from developing PTSD.C. Your friend inherited a genetic predisposition to PTSD.D. Your friend needs a better support network if she wants to avoid developing PTSD.

ANS: A DIF: Difficult REF: 1.2 The Nature/Nurture Debate Has a Long History OBJ: 1.2BNAT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking MSC: Applying
44. Over history, people have viewed the mind as being located in each of the following parts of the body EXCEPT the:A. brain. C. heart.B. liver. D. sexual organs.

ANS: D DIF: Easy REF: 1.2 The Mind/Body Problem Also Has Ancient Roots OBJ: 1.2BNAT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology MSC: Remembering
45. Dualism is the idea that:A. the mind and the brain are separate entities.B. the mind and the brain are the same entity.C. the mind and the brain are opposing forces.D. there is no mind, just the brain.

ANS: A DIF: Easy REF: 1.2 The Mind/Body Problem Also Has Ancient Roots OBJ: 1.2BNAT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology MSC: Remembering
46. Which of the following philosophers is most noted for promoting dualism as an explanation of the mind/body problem?A. René Descartes C. HippocratesB. Leonardo da Vinci D. Sigmund Freud

ANS: A DIF: Easy REF: 1.2 The Mind/Body Problem Also Has Ancient Roots OBJ: 1.2BNAT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology MSC: Analyzing
47. The idea that the mind and body are separate but intertwined describes the viewpoint of:A. dualism. C. introspection.B. structuralism. D. none of the above.

ANS: A DIF: Easy REF: 1.2 The Mind/Body Problem Also Has Ancient Roots OBJ: 1.2BNAT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology MSC: Remembering
48. For most of human history, Western scholars believed that the mind and body were separate and that humans were unique among the animals because humans:A. possessed a soul.B. controlled other animals.C. were mortal.D. had a mind and body that interacted for a divine purpose.

ANS: A DIF: Moderate REF: 1.2 The Mind/Body Problem Also Has Ancient Roots OBJ: 1.2BNAT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology MSC: Remembering
49. With respect to the mind/body problem, which of the following alternatives best captures the view of dualism held by contemporary psychological scientists?A. Most psychological scientists reject dualism.B. Most psychological scientists accept dualism.C. While many psychological scientists reject dualism, a growing minority promote a return to dualism.D. While many psychological scientists accept dualism, a growing minority reject the view.

ANS: A DIF: Moderate REF: 1.2 The Mind/Body Problem Also Has Ancient Roots OBJ: 1.2BNAT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology MSC: Analyzing
50. Who first proposed that psychology should be a science of observation and experimentation in order to discover the laws of the mind?A. René Descartes C. John Stuart MillB. John Locke D. Hermann von Helmholtz

ANS: C DIF: Easy REF: 1.2 Experimental Psychology Began with Introspection OBJ: 1.2CNAT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology MSC: Analyzing
51. Which of the following changes did John Stuart Mill advocate for the field of psychology?A. to move from the study of the mind to the study of the bodyB. to move from the study of the body to the study of the mindC. to move from speculation to observation and experimentationD. to move from experimentation and observation to speculation

ANS: C DIF: Easy REF: 1.2 Experimental Psychology Began with Introspection OBJ: 1.2CNAT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology MSC: Remembering
52. In which city did Wilhelm Wundt open the first psychological laboratory?A. Vienna, Austria C. Oxford, EnglandB. Leipzig, Germany D. Krakow, Poland

ANS: B DIF: Easy REF: 1.2 Experimental Psychology Began with Introspection OBJ: 1.2CNAT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology MSC: Remembering
53. A procedure in which an observer describes the simple elements of a mental experience in as much detail as possible is called:A. introspection. C. introjection.B. internal perception. D. internal sensation.

ANS: A DIF: Easy REF: 1.2 Experimental Psychology Began with Introspection OBJ: 1.2CNAT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology MSC: Remembering
54. Dave walks into his dorm and finds his roommate Pete concentrating and staring at an apple. When he questions what he is doing, Pete tells Dave he is trying to describe the apple’s quality and intensity. Pete is using what technique?A. stream of consciousness C. introspectionB. functionalism D. internal review

ANS: C DIF: Moderate REF: 1.2 Introspection and Other Methods Led to Structuralism OBJ: 1.2C NAT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in PsychologyMSC: Applying
55. Your friend hands you a teddy bear and asks you to describe your sensations and feelings connected to the teddy bear. In this example, you are engaging in:A. psychoanalysis. C. introspection.B. functionalism. D. free association.

ANS: C DIF: Moderate REF: 1.2 Experimental Psychology Began with Introspection OBJ: 1.2CNAT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology MSC: Applying
56. Jordan studies consciousness by training himself to objectively report on his own sensations, which is similar to how the ________ school investigated psychology.A. structuralist C. psychodynamicB. functionalist D. behaviorist

ANS: A DIF: Moderate REF: 1.2 Introspection and Other Methods Led to Structuralism OBJ: 1.2C NAT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in PsychologyMSC: Applying
57. Which early school of psychology used introspection to study subjective mental experiences?A. functionalism C. cognitiveB. behavioral D. structuralism

ANS: D DIF: Easy REF: 1.2 Introspection and Other Methods Led to Structuralism OBJ: 1.2C NAT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in PsychologyMSC: Remembering
58. If you were asked to list all the thoughts and experiences you have while answering a test question, the technique used would be:A. inspection. C. abstraction.B. conscription. D. introspection.

ANS: D DIF: Moderate REF: 1.2 Experimental Psychology Began with Introspection OBJ: 1.2CNAT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology MSC: Understanding
59. Lassandra takes a sip of cola. “Sweet . . . cold, wet, tingly . . . slightly bitter,” she reports. Lassandra is engaging in:A. functionalism. C. psychoanalysis.B. free association. D. introspection.

ANS: D DIF: Moderate REF: 1.2 Experimental Psychology Began with Introspection OBJ: 1.2CNAT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology MSC: Applying
60. The early school of structuralism was introduced by:A. Edward Titchener. C. Wilhelm Wundt.B. William James. D. Mary Whiton Calkins.

ANS: A DIF: Easy REF: 1.2 Introspection and Other Methods Led to Structuralism OBJ: 1.2C NAT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in PsychologyMSC: Remembering
61. Which of the following psychologists is most closely associated with the school of structuralism?A. Sigmund Freud C. Edward TitchenerB. B.F. Skinner D. William James

ANS: C DIF: Easy REF: 1.2 Introspection and Other Methods Led to Structuralism OBJ: 1.2C NAT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in PsychologyMSC: Remembering
62. According to the structuralists, the goal of psychology is to:A. uncover the unconscious determinants of behavior.B. focus on observable behavior itself.C. identify the elements of conscious experience.D. identify the purposes of our behavior and mental processes.

ANS: C DIF: Moderate REF: 1.2 Introspection and Other Methods Led to Structuralism OBJ: 1.2C NAT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in PsychologyMSC: Remembering
63. Dr. Leleux asserts that psychologists should attempt to isolate the fundamental attributes of mental experience. Dr. Leleux appears most sympathetic to the ________ school of thought in psychology.A. structuralist C. functionalistB. behaviorist D. Gestalt

ANS: A DIF: Moderate REF: 1.2 Introspection and Other Methods Led to Structuralism OBJ: 1.2C NAT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in PsychologyMSC: Understanding
64. Mary and Brian see a machine on the television program American Inventor. Mary wants to know what parts make up the machine, but Brian wants to know its purpose. Mary’s approach is most similar to the ________ school of psychology, while Brian’s approach is most similar to the ________ school of psychology.A. structuralist; functionalist C. Gestalt; psychoanalyticB. functionalist; structuralist D. psychoanalytic; Gestalt

ANS: A DIF: Difficult REF: 1.2 Functionalism Addressed the Purpose of Behavior OBJ: 1.2CNAT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology MSC: Analyzing
65. The fact that a variety of thoughts come to mind even as you are engaged in the activity of taking this exam exemplifies psychologist William James’s concept of:A. sea of ideas. C. river of thoughts.B. ports of call. D. stream of consciousness.

ANS: D DIF: Easy REF: 1.2 Functionalism Addressed the Purpose of Behavior OBJ: 1.2CNAT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology MSC: Understanding
66. Which of the following psychologists is most closely associated with the school of functionalism?A. Sigmund Freud C. Wilhelm WundtB. B.F. Skinner D. William James

ANS: D DIF: Easy REF: 1.2 Functionalism Addressed the Purpose of Behavior OBJ: 1.2CNAT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology MSC: Remembering
67. With respect to the psychology of emotion, William James would be most interested in:A. the contribution of unconscious memories to one’s emotional experience.B. the basic nature of an emotional feeling or experience.C. how emotions aid one’s adaptation to the environment.D. one’s subjective interpretation of one’s emotions.

ANS: C DIF: Easy REF: 1.2 Functionalism Addressed the Purpose of Behavior OBJ: 1.2CNAT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology MSC: Analyzing
68. Functionalism has been criticized because it:A. does not include elements of the nature/nurture debate.B. sometimes lacks scientific rigor.C. focuses on narrow parts of problems rather than on the whole.D. does not take into account the way children process information.

ANS: B DIF: Moderate REF: 1.2 Functionalism Addressed the Purpose of Behavior OBJ: 1.2CNAT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology MSC: Understanding
69. Functionalism has influenced each of the following pursuits EXCEPT:A. determining the function of religion.B. developing better ways of applying divergent thinking and creativity in the classroom.C. determining teaching methods based on how children’s minds process information.D. developing reward and punishment programs and token economies.

ANS: D DIF: Difficult REF: 1.2 Functionalism Addressed the Purpose of Behavior OBJ: 1.2CNAT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology MSC: Understanding
70. Charles Darwin’s On the Origin of Species had its strongest influence on the ________ school of thought in psychology.A. functionalist C. structuralistB. humanistic D. psychoanalytic

ANS: A DIF: Easy REF: 1.2 Functionalism Addressed the Purpose of Behavior OBJ: 1.2CNAT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology MSC: Remembering
71. According to the concept of survival of the fittest:A. random mutations are always adaptive.B. only the biggest animals will survive.C. organisms that are most adaptive to their environments are most likely to survive.D. organisms that can spontaneously mutate their genes in response to the environment are most likely to survive.

ANS: C DIF: Easy REF: 1.2 Functionalism Addressed the Purpose of Behavior OBJ: 1.2CNAT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology MSC: Remembering
72. Paul researches how cooperation in humans increases our ability to survive and successfully raise children. Paul uses a(n) ________ approach in his research.A. structuralist C. evolutionaryB. functionalist D. cognitive

ANS: C DIF: Moderate REF: 1.2 Functionalism Addressed the Purpose of Behavior OBJ: 1.2CNAT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology MSC: Applying
73. Lucinda is afraid of dogs. Her psychologist, Dr. Lee, believes her fear is part of an adaptive response that has helped our species survive. Which psychological approach does Dr. Lee follow?A. psycholanalysis C. socialB. behaviorism D. evolutionary

ANS: D DIF: Moderate REF: 1.2 Functionalism Addressed the Purpose of Behavior OBJ: 1.2CNAT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology MSC: Applying
74. Will believes that most modern men prefer young and healthy female partners because this preference increases the likelihood of the survival of our genetic ancestors. Which psychological approach does Will believe?A. social C. functionalistB. evolutionary D. cognitive

ANS: B DIF: Moderate REF: 1.2 Functionalism Addressed the Purpose of Behavior OBJ: 1.2CNAT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology MSC: Understanding
75. The idea that the mind came into existence over the course of human evolution is the viewpoint of:A. structuralism. C. behaviorism.B. functionalism. D. none of the above.

ANS: B DIF: Easy REF: 1.2 Functionalism Addressed the Purpose of Behavior OBJ: 1.2CNAT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology MSC: Remembering
76. Gestalt psychology is best seen as a reaction against the ________ approach.A. functionalist C. psychoanalyticB. humanistic D. structuralist

ANS: D DIF: Moderate REF: 1.2 Gestalt Psychology Emphasized Patterns and Context in LearningOBJ: 1.2C NAT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in PsychologyMSC: Remembering
77. Which of the following psychologists is most closely associated with the Gestalt school of thought?A. Sigmund Freud C. Wolfgang KöhlerB. B.F. Skinner D. William James

ANS: C DIF: Easy REF: 1.2 Gestalt Psychology Emphasized Patterns and Context in LearningOBJ: 1.2C NAT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in PsychologyMSC: Remembering
78. The school of Gestalt:A. is based on the idea that the whole is different than the sum of its parts.B. includes the role of environment on behavior.C. examines how social situations influence behavior.D. is based on scientifically researched forms of therapy.

ANS: A DIF: Easy REF: 1.2 Gestalt Psychology Emphasized Patterns and Context in LearningOBJ: 1.2C NAT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in PsychologyMSC: Remembering
79. Gestalt psychology is LEAST relevant to our understanding of which of the following topics?A. subjective experience C. visual perceptionB. human personality D. cellular neuroscience

ANS: D DIF: Moderate REF: 1.2 Gestalt Psychology Emphasized Patterns and Context in LearningOBJ: 1.2C NAT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in PsychologyMSC: Understanding
80. Marty is an artist. He does not like when people talk about the separate parts of his pictures because he believes that looking at the complete picture is most important. Marty’s opinion is similar to the ________ approach.A. structuralist C. GestaltB. behaviorist D. psychoanalytic

ANS: C DIF: Moderate REF: 1.2 Gestalt Psychology Emphasized Patterns and Context in LearningOBJ: 1.2C NAT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in PsychologyMSC: Applying
81. Roberto studies music preferences. Roberto claims that it is useless to isolate and listen to only a rhythm, a violin part, or another single aspect of music because perceiving the complete piece is most important. Roberto’s opinion is similar to the ________ approach.A. structuralist C. behavioristB. Gestalt D. psychoanalytic

ANS: B DIF: Moderate REF: 1.2 Gestalt Psychology Emphasized Patterns and Context in LearningOBJ: 1.2C NAT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in PsychologyMSC: Applying
82. Which of the following types of evidence provided the foundation for Freudian theory?A. survey responses of large samples of adultsB. observations of adults in everyday contextsC. case studies of patients in therapyD. laboratory studies of animal behavior

ANS: C DIF: Moderate REF: 1.2 Freud Emphasized Unconscious ConflictsOBJ: 1.2C NAT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in PsychologyMSC: Remembering
83. Which of the following psychologists is most closely associated with the concept of the unconscious?A. Sigmund Freud C. Wilhelm WundtB. B.F. Skinner D. William James

ANS: A DIF: Easy REF: 1.2 Freud Emphasized Unconscious ConflictsOBJ: 1.2C NAT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in PsychologyMSC: Remembering
84. The unconscious mind influences human behavior, according to:A. structuralism. C. functionalism.B. psychoanalysis. D. behaviorism.

ANS: B DIF: Easy REF: 1.2 Freud Emphasized Unconscious ConflictsOBJ: 1.2C NAT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in PsychologyMSC: Remembering
85. Noreen asserts that our behavior often reflects unconscious motives and conflicts. This viewpoint is most consistent with the ________ approach in psychology.A. Freudian C. GestaltB. structuralist D. behaviorist

ANS: A DIF: Easy REF: 1.2 Freud Emphasized Unconscious ConflictsOBJ: 1.2C NAT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in PsychologyMSC: Understanding
86. The theories of Sigmund Freud and his followers:A. are based on the idea that much of human behavior is determined by mental processes operating below the level of conscious awareness.B. emphasize the functions served by the mind.C. emphasize the concept that the whole is different than the sum of its parts.D. state that behavior can be altered by the application of reinforcement and punishment.

ANS: A DIF: Easy REF: 1.2 Freud Emphasized Unconscious ConflictsOBJ: 1.2C NAT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in PsychologyMSC: Remembering
87. Psychoanalysis is a type of psychological treatment developed by ________, a Viennese neurologist.A. Wilhelm Wundt C. Wolfgang KöhlerB. Sigmund Freud D. Edward Titchener

ANS: B DIF: Easy REF: 1.2 Freud Emphasized Unconscious ConflictsOBJ: 1.2C NAT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in PsychologyMSC: Remembering
88. “Why am I so depressed?” asked Phia. “Obviously,” said Dr. Fox, “you have inner, unconscious turmoil that we need to explore.” Dr. Fox takes a(n) ________ approach to psychology.A. evolutionary C. functionalistB. psychoanalytic D. Gestalt

ANS: B DIF: Moderate REF: 1.2 Freud Emphasized Unconscious ConflictsOBJ: 1.2C NAT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in PsychologyMSC: Applying
89. Mandy is talking about her problems on a radio talk show. The host explains that these problems came about because of Mandy’s unconscious internal struggles. This explanation is consistent with the ________ approach in psychology.A. behaviorist C. evolutionaryB. structuralist D. psychoanalytic

ANS: D DIF: Moderate REF: 1.2 Freud Emphasized Unconscious ConflictsOBJ: 1.2C NAT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in PsychologyMSC: Applying
90. The psychological approach that emphasizes the role of the environment in influencing behavior is:A. behaviorism. C. psychoanalytic.B. humanism. D. none of the above.

ANS: A DIF: Easy REF: 1.2 Behaviorism Studied Environmental ForcesOBJ: 1.2C NAT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in PsychologyMSC: Remembering
91. Who would be most likely to agree with the statement, “Psychologists should study that which is observable”?A. a cognitive psychologistB. a behavioral psychologistC. a developmental psychologistD. an industrial/organizational psychologist

ANS: B DIF: Easy REF: 1.2 Behaviorism Studied Environmental ForcesOBJ: 1.2C NAT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 5, Professional DevelopmentMSC: Analyzing
92. “I think therefore I behave”—a version of Descartes’s statement “I think therefore I am”—indicates the importance of ________ on behavior and would not be agreed with by a behaviorist.A. reflexes C. environmentB. mental functions D. the unconscious

ANS: B DIF: Moderate REF: 1.2 Behaviorism Studied Environmental ForcesOBJ: 1.2C NAT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in PsychologyMSC: Understanding
93. Which of the following is NOT one of the questions behaviorism has attempted to answer?A. Which is more important, nature or nurture?B. Does environment influence behavior?C. How can rewards and punishments influence behavior?D. How can the unconscious be described by neuroscience?

ANS: D DIF: Moderate REF: 1.2 Behaviorism Studied Environmental ForcesOBJ: 1.2C NAT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in PsychologyMSC: Analyzing
94. Which psychologist would be most dismayed by the emphasis on mental processes in modern psychology?A. Sigmund Freud C. Edward TitchenerB. Wilhelm Wundt D. John Watson

ANS: D DIF: Difficult REF: 1.2 Behaviorism Studied Environmental ForcesOBJ: 1.2C NAT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in PsychologyMSC: Understanding
95. Damon thinks that it is impossible to study the experience of consciousness. Instead, he believes psychologists should focus only on the actions people take and why they take them. Damon believes in the ________ approach to psychology.A. structuralist C. evolutionaryB. behaviorist D. psychoanalytic

ANS: B DIF: Moderate REF: 1.2 Behaviorism Studied Environmental ForcesOBJ: 1.2C NAT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in PsychologyMSC: Understanding
96. In which order did the behaviorists discussed in your text make their most important contributions to the field, from the earliest to the most recent?A. Watson, Pavlov, Skinner C. Pavlov, Skinner, WatsonB. Pavlov, Watson, Skinner D. Skinner, Watson, Pavlov

ANS: B DIF: Difficult REF: 1.2 Behaviorism Studied Environmental ForcesOBJ: 1.2C NAT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in PsychologyMSC: Understanding
97. Leyna conducts research with puppies to determine if punishing them for inappropriate behavior will be more effective than rewarding them for appropriate behavior. In this example, Leyna is using a(n) ________ approach in her research.A. functionalist C. behavioristB. structuralist D. psychoanalytic

ANS: C DIF: Moderate REF: 1.2 Behaviorism Studied Environmental ForcesOBJ: 1.2C NAT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in PsychologyMSC: Applying
98. Information processing views the brain as ________ and the mind as ________.A. a program; a data port C. hardware; softwareB. structure; function D. a program; input

ANS: C DIF: Easy REF: 1.2 Cognitive Approaches Emphasized Mental Activity OBJ: 1.2CNAT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology MSC: Understanding
99. Which of the following psychologists is most closely associated with the cognitive revolution?A. George Miller C. Sigmund FreudB. B.F. Skinner D. William James

ANS: A DIF: Moderate REF: 1.2 Cognitive Approaches Emphasized Mental Activity OBJ: 1.2CNAT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology MSC: Remembering
100. Which of the following developments was most important in the rise of the cognitive approach in psychology?A. the identification of the unconsciousB. the understanding of the effects of reward and punishment on behavior and thinkingC. the emergence of computersD. the ability to identify different kinds of neurons

ANS: C DIF: Difficult REF: 1.2 Cognitive Approaches Emphasized Mental Activity OBJ: 1.2CNAT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology MSC: Understanding
101. Which area of psychology studies how the mind processes, stores, and retrieves information?A. cognitive C. behaviorismB. structuralism D. functionalism

ANS: A DIF: Easy REF: 1.2 Cognitive Approaches Emphasized Mental Activity OBJ: 1.2CNAT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology MSC: Remembering
102. Recall your text’s discussion of the cognitive approach in psychology. During which decade did cognitive neuroscience become an influential field in cognitive psychology?A. the 1960s C. the 1990sB. the 1970s D. the 2000s

ANS: C DIF: Moderate REF: 1.2 Cognitive Approaches Emphasized Mental Activity OBJ: 1.2CNAT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology MSC: Remembering
103. Which of the following statements best captures historical trends in the cognitive approach in psychology?A. In the 1970s, cognitive psychology emphasized the mind; today, it focuses mostly on behavior.B. In the 1970s, cognitive psychology emphasized the mind; today, it focuses mainly on the brain.C. In the 1970s, cognitive psychology emphasized the brain; today, it focuses on the mind along with the brain.D. In the 1970s, cognitive psychology emphasized the mind; today, it focuses on both the mind and the brain.

ANS: D DIF: Difficult REF: 1.2 Cognitive Approaches Emphasized Mental Activity OBJ: 1.2CNAT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology MSC: Understanding
104. Which of the following phenomena would likely be studied by social psychologists?A. strategies leaders use to influence other people’s behaviorsB. how animals differ in their sensitivities to reward and punishmentC. which category of perceptual images is most likely to be identified quicklyD. which neurons are activated when people look at different shapes

ANS: A DIF: Moderate REF: 1.2 Social Psychology Studies How Situations Shape Behavior OBJ: 1.2C NAT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 5, Professional DevelopmentMSC: Applying
105. Which of the following psychologists are most closely associated with social psychology?A. Watson and Skinner C. Freud and JungB. Allport and Lewin D. Titchener and Wundt

ANS: B DIF: Moderate REF: 1.2 Social Psychology Studies How Situations Shape Behavior OBJ: 1.2C NAT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in PsychologyMSC: Remembering
106. With respect to the historical development of the field of social psychology, which of the following statements is most accurate?A. Social psychology clearly reflects the continuing influence of the psychodynamic approach.B. Social psychology initially reflected the influence of the cognitive perspective; today, though, the field is heavily behavioristic.C. Social psychology initially reflected the influence of the psychodynamic perspective; today, though, the field is more cognitive in orientation.D. Social psychology has always reflected the impact of the Gestalt psychologists.

ANS: C DIF: Difficult REF: 1.2 Social Psychology Studies How Situations Shape Behavior OBJ: 1.2C NAT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in PsychologyMSC: Understanding
107. Dr. Nick studies how the color and lighting in a room can influence how people interact with each other during a conversation. Which approach is Dr. Nick using in his research?A. cognitive C. personalityB. social D. cognitive neuroscience

ANS: B DIF: Difficult REF: 1.2 Social Psychology Studies How Situations Shape Behavior OBJ: 1.2C NAT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in PsychologyMSC: Applying
108. Which of the following psychologists are most closely associated with humanistic psychology?A. Watson and Skinner C. Freud and JungB. Allport and Lewin D. Rogers and Maslow

ANS: D DIF: Moderate REF: 1.2 Science Informs Psychological TreatmentsOBJ: 1.2C NAT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in PsychologyMSC: Remembering
109. Humanism, championed by Maslow and Rogers, changed therapy by:A. developing new techniques for questioning and listening to patients.B. giving rise to greater use of imagery in therapy.C. examining illogical cognitive processes.D. using drug therapies to lessen symptoms.

ANS: A DIF: Moderate REF: 1.2 Science Informs Psychological TreatmentsOBJ: 1.2C NAT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in PsychologyMSC: Remembering
110. Which of the following is a FALSE statement regarding the development of psychological therapy?A. In the last four decades, a scientific approach to the treatment of psychological disorders has emerged.B. The scientific approach to the treatment of psychological disorders has mirrored general advances in psychological science.C. Most modern psychological therapies were developed using the scientific approach.D. Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow were the first to emphasize the use of the scientific approach.

ANS: D DIF: Difficult REF: 1.2 Science Informs Psychological TreatmentsOBJ: 1.2C NAT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in PsychologyMSC: Understanding
111. Which of the following statements best captures the view of contemporary psychological science with respect to the origin of behavioral and mental disorders?A. Psychological disorders are best understood from an environmental— nurture—perspective.B. Psychological disorders are best understood from a biological—nature—perspective.C. Psychological disorders are best understood as resulting from the inseparable interaction of nature and nurture.D. Psychological disorders were originally thought to be caused entirely by biological factors but are now known to largely reflect environmental factors.

ANS: C DIF: Difficult REF: 1.2 Science Informs Psychological TreatmentsOBJ: 1.2C NAT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking MSC: Understanding
112. Which of the following areas has played a role in better understanding the biology of psychology?A. advances in brain chemistryB. advances in neuroscienceC. advances in understanding the human genomeD. all of the above

ANS: D DIF: Easy REF: 1.3 Biology Is Increasingly Emphasized in Explaining Psychological PhenomenaOBJ: 1.3A NAT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in PsychologyMSC: Remembering
113. The area of science that focuses on studying the working brain is called:A. psychological science. C. psychobiological science.B. biological science. D. neuroscience.

ANS: D DIF: Easy REF: 1.3 Biology Is Increasingly Emphasized in Explaining Psychological PhenomenaOBJ: 1.3A NAT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in PsychologyMSC: Remembering
114. Your text reviews three general developments in biology that have helped fuel the development of psychological science. Which of the following is NOT among these developments?A. developments in the understanding of brain chemistryB. mapping the human genomeC. evolutionary evidence that proves that the mind developed from the brainD. brain scan methods that allow scientists to watch a working brain

ANS: C DIF: Moderate REF: 1.3 Biology Is Increasingly Emphasized in Explaining Psychological PhenomenaOBJ: 1.3A NAT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in PsychologyMSC: Analyzing
115. A genome is a:A. genetic blueprint. C. mythical creature.B. sex chromosome. D. component of DNA.

ANS: A DIF: Easy REF: 1.3 Biology Is Increasingly Emphasized in Explaining Psychological PhenomenaOBJ: 1.3A NAT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in PsychologyMSC: Remembering
116. According to ________ theory, the brain has adapted over millions of years to solve problems related to survival and reproduction.A. adaptational C. the nature/nurtureB. evolutionary D. the neurochemical

ANS: B DIF: Easy REF: 1.3 Evolutionary Thinking Is Increasingly Influential OBJ: 1.3ANAT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology MSC: Remembering
117. Which of the following is NOT an example of a question scientists might ask regarding evolutionary adaptations in humans?A. Why do people like sweets and foods high in fat?B. Why do young children develop a fear of heights, as shown in visual cliff studies?C. How has walking upright increased human survival?D. Can you learn to adapt your note-taking style from a lecture to small-group discussion classes?

ANS: D DIF: Moderate REF: 1.3 Evolutionary Thinking Is Increasingly Influential OBJ: 1.3ANAT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking MSC: Applying
118. Relative to human biological evolution, cultural evolution has occurred:A. much slower. C. much faster.B. at about the same speed. D. There is no way to know.

ANS: C DIF: Easy REF: 1.3 Culture Provides Adaptive SolutionsOBJ: 1.3A NAT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in PsychologyMSC: Remembering
119. Which of the following statements best captures the relationship between cultural evolution and biological evolution?A. Cultural evolution sets the stage for biological evolution.B. Cultural evolution has taken over biological evolution.C. Cultural evolution has occurred more rapidly than biological evolution.D. Cultural evolution works against biological evolution.

ANS: C DIF: Difficult REF: 1.3 Culture Provides Adaptive SolutionsOBJ: 1.3A NAT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in PsychologyMSC: Understanding
120. Almost anywhere you travel in the world you can find a McDonald’s restaurant or T-shirts with American logos. Researchers theorize that this phenomenon is part of a process that accelerates cultural evolution. What is this process called?A. urbanization C. globalizationB. commercial warfare D. world exchange

ANS: C DIF: Easy REF: 1.3 Culture Provides Adaptive SolutionsOBJ: 1.3A NAT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in PsychologyMSC: Applying
121. Which cultural group is most likely to focus on single elements of the foreground in an image rather than on the entire image?A. Eastern culturesB. Western culturesC. both Western and Eastern culturesD. neither Western nor Eastern cultures

ANS: B DIF: Moderate REF: 1.3 Culture Provides Adaptive SolutionsOBJ: 1.3A NAT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 3, Ethical and Social Responsibility in a Diverse World MSC: Remembering
122. Which cultural group is most likely to focus on an entire image rather than the single elements of its foreground?A. Eastern culturesB. Western culturesC. both Western and Eastern culturesD. neither Western nor Eastern cultures

ANS: A DIF: Moderate REF: 1.3 Culture Provides Adaptive SolutionsOBJ: 1.3A NAT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 3, Ethical and Social Responsibility in a Diverse World MSC: Remembering
123. According to research conducted by Richard Nisbett, ________ tend to be ________ in their thinking.A. Western cultures; holisticB. Eastern cultures; holisticC. both Western and Eastern cultures; holisticD. both Western and Eastern cultures; analytic

ANS: B DIF: Moderate REF: 1.3 Culture Provides Adaptive SolutionsOBJ: 1.3A NAT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 3, Ethical and Social Responsibility in a Diverse World MSC: Remembering
124. Which of the following statements best summarizes the role of culture in shaping behaviors?A. Culture has a minor role that is far secondary to biology.B. Culture plays an important role in shaping our behaviors.C. Cultural experiences allow us to break down complex ideas.D. Culture affects only social behaviors and not the way we think.

ANS: B DIF: Difficult REF: 1.3 Culture Provides Adaptive SolutionsOBJ: 1.3A NAT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking | APA Goal 3, Ethical and Social Responsibility in a Diverse WorldMSC: Understanding
125. Dr. Scott is testing whether cultural norms about emotion influence neural responses to different emotional expressions. Dr. Scott’s research is in the area of:A. evolutionary psychology. C. bicultural psychology.B. sociobiology. D. cultural neuroscience.

ANS: D DIF: Moderate REF: 1.3 Culture Provides Adaptive SolutionsOBJ: 1.3A NAT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 3, Ethical and Social Responsibility in a Diverse World MSC: Applying
126. Psychological science crosses which level(s) of analysis?A. biological C. individualB. social D. all of the above

ANS: D DIF: Easy REF: 1.3 Psychological Science Now Crosses Levels of Analysis OBJ: 1.3A NAT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in PsychologyMSC: Remembering
127. Which of the following is an example of research done at the individual level of analysis?A. examining how neurotransmitters change when recalling a painful memoryB. studying how different personality traits can influence job successC. testing whether people perform an easy skill better alone or in front of a groupD. exploring how the country one grows up in influences how one interprets nonverbal cues

ANS: B DIF: Moderate REF: 1.3 Psychological Science Now Crosses Levels of Analysis OBJ: 1.3A NAT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking MSC: Applying
128. Which of the following is an example of research done at the biological level of analysis?A. exploring how patterns of brain activity change under hypnosisB. examining how mood can influence how we process persuasive argumentsC. researching how large and small groups function in problem-solving tasksD. testing how one’s society influences how one explains failure and success

ANS: A DIF: Moderate REF: 1.3 Psychological Science Now Crosses Levels of Analysis OBJ: 1.3A NAT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking MSC: Applying
129. Which of the following is an example of research done at the social level of analysis?A. testing whether people perform a new skill better alone or in front of a groupB. examining how brain chemicals change when recalling a happy memoryC. testing how one’s culture influences how one explains personal failure and successD. examining how sadness can influence how we process persuasive arguments

ANS: A DIF: Difficult REF: 1.3 Psychological Science Now Crosses Levels of Analysis OBJ: 1.3A NAT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking MSC: Applying
130. Which of the following is an example of research done at the cultural level of analysis?A. examining how large and small groups compromise during negotiationsB. studying how different personality traits can influence overall life satisfactionC. testing how patterns of brain activity change under the influence of drugsD. exploring how the country one grows up in influences how one interprets nonverbal cues

ANS: D DIF: Difficult REF: 1.3 Psychological Science Now Crosses Levels of Analysis OBJ: 1.3A NAT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking MSC: Applying
131. Careers in psychology that are expected to grow in the future include:A. working with older adults. C. homeland security.B. working with soldiers. D. all of the above.

ANS: D DIF: Easy REF: 1.3 Psychological Science Now Crosses Levels of Analysis OBJ: 1.3B NAT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 5, Professional DevelopmentMSC: Remembering
132. Which of the following would be an example of the biological level of analysis?A. examining how the death of a spouse results in changes in serotonin in the brainB. examining whether a person’s personality is enduring or changing across the life spanC. examining how being in a group changes whether a person will engage in illegal behaviorD. examining how different cultures define mental illness

ANS: A DIF: Easy REF: 1.3 Psychological Science Now Crosses Levels of Analysis OBJ: 1.3B NAT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking MSC: Applying
133. You catch your 12-year-old sister smoking. She says that she likes to smoke because her friends smoke. You tell her she does it because she is addicted. Which of the following terms correspond to the stated levels of analysis for the smoking behavior?A. cultural, psychological C. social, psychologicalB. cultural, biological D. social, biological

ANS: D DIF: Difficult REF: 1.3 Psychological Science Now Crosses Levels of Analysis OBJ: 1.3B NAT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in PsychologyMSC: Applying
134. An interpersonal level of analysis falls into which of the following categories for understanding behavior?A. biological C. psychologicalB. perceptual D. social

ANS: D DIF: Easy REF: 1.3 Psychological Science Now Crosses Levels of Analysis OBJ: 1.3B NAT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in PsychologyMSC: Remembering
135. Which type of psychologist studies how people are affected by the presence of others?A. developmental C. socialB. cultural D. clinical

ANS: C DIF: Easy REF: 1.3 Psychological Science Now Crosses Levels of Analysis OBJ: 1.3B NAT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 5, Professional DevelopmentMSC: Remembering
136. Ethnomusicology examines music preferences from the ________ level of analysis.A. biological C. socialB. individual D. cultural

ANS: D DIF: Easy REF: 1.3 Psychological Science Now Crosses Levels of Analysis OBJ: 1.3B NAT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in PsychologyMSC: Remembering
137. Which area of psychology studies how shared ideas and behaviors are passed from one generation to the next?A. biological C. culturalB. individual D. none of the above

ANS: C DIF: Easy REF: 1.3 Psychological Science Now Crosses Levels of Analysis OBJ: 1.3B NAT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 5, Professional DevelopmentMSC: Remembering
138. Which level of analysis in psychology is correctly matched with an example?A. Cultural level: At low doses, cocaine can improve performance on visual attention tasks, such as detecting specific stimuli appearing on a computer screen.B. Individual level: Cocaine abuse is associated with a history of violence and sexual abuse in the family.C. Biological level: Cocaine exerts its effects by prolonging the presence of specific chemicals at the junctions between nerve cells.D. Cultural level: Cocaine abuse is associated with high levels of the personality trait of neuroticism and with low levels of the trait of conscientiousness.

ANS: C DIF: Difficult REF: 1.3 Psychological Science Now Crosses Levels of Analysis OBJ: 1.3B NAT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking MSC: Understanding
139. Which level of analysis in psychology is correctly matched with an example?A. biological—testing how men and women differ in negotiationsB. individual—examining how large and small groups compromise during negotiationsC. social—studying what personality traits make one a better negotiatorD. cultural—exploring how the country in which one grows up impacts negotiation skills

ANS: D DIF: Difficult REF: 1.3 Psychological Science Now Crosses Levels of Analysis OBJ: 1.3B NAT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking MSC: Understanding
140. Dr. Alvarez studies how the degeneration of certain components of nerve cells in the brain might contribute to the development of multiple sclerosis. Dr. Alvarez’s work best exemplifies the ________ subfield of psychology.A. cognitive C. developmentalB. social D. biological

ANS: D DIF: Moderate REF: 1.3 Psychological Science Now Crosses Levels of Analysis OBJ: 1.3B NAT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 5, Professional DevelopmentMSC: Understanding
141. Which of the following subfields of psychology is INCORRECTLY matched with its description?A. neuroscience—examines the relationship between the nervous system and behaviorB. cognitive—examines how people grow and change from conception to deathC. industrial/organization—examines behavior and productivity in the workplaceD. clinical—deals with the study, diagnosis, and treatment of psychological disorders

ANS: B DIF: Moderate REF: 1.3 Psychological Science Now Crosses Levels of Analysis OBJ: 1.3B NAT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 5, Professional DevelopmentMSC: Remembering
142. Which of the following subfields in psychology is correctly matched with an example?A. developmental—exploring how drug use rates differ by countryB. personality—testing how drug use rates differ across the life spanC. social—examining how friend groups influence each other’s drug useD. cultural—studying how certain personality traits lead to faster drug recovery

ANS: C DIF: Difficult REF: 1.3 Psychological Science Now Crosses Levels of Analysis OBJ: 1.3B NAT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 5, Professional DevelopmentMSC: Understanding
143. Which of the following subfields of psychology is correctly matched with a sample topic?A. cognitive psychology—the influence of emotions on decision makingB. developmental psychology—the effectiveness of drug therapy for obsessive-compulsive disorderC. counseling—the role of neurotransmitter deficits in schizophreniaD. clinical—the development of valid achievement tests for elementary school students

ANS: A DIF: Moderate REF: 1.3 Psychological Science Now Crosses Levels of Analysis OBJ: 1.3B NAT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 5, Professional DevelopmentMSC: Understanding
144. Topics such as perception, thinking, and learning are studied by ________ psychologists.A. organizational C. personalityB. developmental D. cognitive

ANS: D DIF: Easy REF: 1.3 Psychological Science Now Crosses Levels of Analysis OBJ: 1.3B NAT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 5, Professional DevelopmentMSC: Remembering
145. Dr. Ebrahim examines how children’s friendships change through the elementary and middle school years. Dr. Ebrahim is a(n) ________ psychologist.A. developmental C. cognitiveB. personality D. organizational

ANS: A DIF: Easy REF: 1.3 Psychological Science Now Crosses Levels of Analysis OBJ: 1.3B NAT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 5, Professional DevelopmentMSC: Applying
146. Dr. Chen studies several traits that distinguish one person from another. Dr. Doherty investigates how people grow and change during late adolescence and young adulthood. Dr. Chen is a ________ psychologist; Dr. Doherty is a ________.A. personality; personality psychologist, tooB. personality; developmental psychologistC. developmental; personality psychologistD. developmental; developmental psychologist, too

ANS: B DIF: Moderate REF: 1.3 Psychological Science Now Crosses Levels of Analysis OBJ: 1.3B NAT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 5, Professional DevelopmentMSC: Applying
147. Dr. Growe is reading an article reporting research in which psychologists investigated the effect of group size on the conformity of group members. Dr. Growe is most likely reading the Journal of ________ Psychology.A. Developmental C. CulturalB. Social D. Personality

ANS: B DIF: Moderate REF: 1.3 Psychological Science Now Crosses Levels of Analysis OBJ: 1.3B NAT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 5, Professional DevelopmentMSC: Understanding
148. Dr. Lin studies obesity. She believes that the likelihood of obesity is related to levels of the trait of agreeableness. In which subfield is Dr. Lin most likely to work?A. personality psychology C. counseling psychologyB. social psychology D. developmental psychology

ANS: A DIF: Difficult REF: 1.3 Psychological Science Now Crosses Levels of Analysis OBJ: 1.3B NAT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 5, Professional DevelopmentMSC: Applying
149. Which type of psychologists study, assess, and treat individuals with psychological disorders?A. school C. clinicalB. personality D. cognitive

ANS: C DIF: Easy REF: 1.3 Psychological Science Now Crosses Levels of Analysis OBJ: 1.3B NAT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 5, Professional DevelopmentMSC: Remembering
150. Clinical psychologists work with individuals:A. with severe mental illness. C. with marital and family concerns.B. with daily stressors. D. needing career advice.

ANS: A DIF: Easy REF: 1.3 Psychological Science Now Crosses Levels of Analysis OBJ: 1.3B NAT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 5, Professional DevelopmentMSC: Remembering
151. A married couple experiencing relationship difficulties is best advised to consult a ________ psychologist.A. social C. personalityB. clinical D. counseling

ANS: D DIF: Moderate REF: 1.3 Psychological Science Now Crosses Levels of Analysis OBJ: 1.3B NAT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 5, Professional DevelopmentMSC: Understanding
152. Workplace training and job placement would be of interest to which type of psychologist?A. counseling C. industrial/organizationalB. clinical D. developmental

ANS: C DIF: Easy REF: 1.3 Psychological Science Now Crosses Levels of Analysis OBJ: 1.3B NAT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 5, Professional DevelopmentMSC: Understanding
153. The psychologists most likely to work in business are ________ psychologists.A. organizational C. experimentalB. clinical D. developmental

ANS: A DIF: Easy REF: 1.3 Psychological Science Now Crosses Levels of Analysis OBJ: 1.3B NAT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 5, Professional DevelopmentMSC: Remembering
154. Kim spent years studying children in a remote village. To understand how their behavior and mental processes change over time, she would like to study them over the course of their lifetimes. Kim is most likely a(n) ________ psychologist.A. personality C. cognitiveB. school D. developmental

ANS: D DIF: Easy REF: 1.3 Psychological Science Now Crosses Levels of Analysis OBJ: 1.3B NAT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 5, Professional DevelopmentMSC: Applying
155. General Mills wants to design new cereal packaging that is easy for parents to open but hard for infants to open. To make sure it understands the capabilities and limitations of both age groups, it should hire a(n) ________ psychologist.A. biological C. developmentalB. cognitive D. industrial/organizational

ANS: C DIF: Difficult REF: 1.3 Psychological Science Now Crosses Levels of Analysis OBJ: 1.3B NAT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 5, Professional DevelopmentMSC: Applying
156. Which of the following is a research question that a personality psychologist might study?A. What team processes make some teams more successful than others?B. What individual traits lead to deviant behavior and criminal activity?C. What are the best therapies for obsessive-compulsive disorder?D. What interventions would reduce the rate of mental illness in homeless populations?

ANS: B DIF: Moderate REF: 1.3 Psychological Science Now Crosses Levels of Analysis OBJ: 1.3B NAT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 5, Professional DevelopmentMSC: Applying
157. Emily has created an individualized program to teach coping strategies to each child with learning disabilities. Emily is most likely a(n) ________ psychologist.A. school C. counselingB. developmental D. cognitive

ANS: A DIF: Moderate REF: 1.3 Psychological Science Now Crosses Levels of Analysis OBJ: 1.3B NAT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 5, Professional DevelopmentMSC: Applying
158. Duane studies the relationship between hormone levels and people’s abilities to cope with stress. In which subfield of psychology does Duane conduct research?A. evolutionary C. biologicalB. social D. developmental

ANS: C DIF: Moderate REF: 1.3 Psychological Science Now Crosses Levels of Analysis OBJ: 1.3B NAT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 5, Professional DevelopmentMSC: Applying
159. Mindy is a psychologist who was just hired to try to improve the morale and motivation of the workers in her company. Mindy is probably a(n) ________ psychologist.A. personality C. clinical/counselingB. social D. industrial/organizational

ANS: D DIF: Moderate REF: 1.3 Psychological Science Now Crosses Levels of Analysis OBJ: 1.3B NAT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 5, Professional DevelopmentMSC: Applying
160. Jane has a phobia of public speaking. To help her overcome her phobia, she decided to consult a ________ psychologist.A. personality C. counselingB. clinical D. social

ANS: B DIF: Moderate REF: 1.3 Psychological Science Now Crosses Levels of Analysis OBJ: 1.3B NAT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 5, Professional DevelopmentMSC: Understanding