Care Act Advantages for American People

Care Act Advantages for American People

Position Paper

REQUIREMENTS

This is a continuation of the first and second assignments and uses your accumulated research. Imagine you are two different lobbyists, supporting two different sides of the policy issue you wrote about in the Week 6 assignment, Analyzing Policy.

Submit your revisions from the Week 3 assignment, Historical Perspective and the Week 6 assignment, Analyzing Policy based on your professor’s feedback. You will be graded on your revisions. Then, write a 4–5 page paper in which you:

  • Write a one-page position in favor of the policy.
  • Write a one-page position against the policy.
  • Write a one-page response to the argument in favor of the policy.
  • Write a one-page response to the argument against the policy.
  • Include at least four peer-reviewed references from material outside the textbook. Note: Appropriate peer-reviewed references include scholarly articles and governmental websites. Wikipedia, other wikis do not qualify as peer-reviewed. Use Basic Search: Strayer University Online Library to identify references.

Note: The revisions from the Week 3 assignment, Historical Perspective and the Week 6 assignment, Analyzing Policy, must flow together with this assignment as one seamless paper.

This course requires the use of Strayer Writing Standards. For assistance and information, please refer to the Strayer Writing Standards link in the left-hand menu of your course. Check with your professor for any additional instructions.

The specific course learning outcome associated with this assignment is:

  • Defend positions (for and against) on policy issues using various argument types.

 

Unformatted Attachment Preview

Running head: ANALYZING POLICY 1 Analyzing Policy Lukeldic Harris PAD 510 November 15, 2020 Professor Timothy Smith ANALYZING POLICY 2 Summary The affordable care act is among the federal policies developed and implemented during President Obama’s leadership. It was instituted to reform the healthcare sector by ensuring equality in accessing healthcare services through quality and affordable services to all citizens. Its implementation enabled a more robust and healthier American community by transforming public health and enhancing healthcare innovations. The affordable care act transformed the insurance market. It included implementing the Medicaid program among the poor, thereby leading to health equality and delivery of services to all people. It also ensured informed decision-making in matters related to the population’s health in transforming medical decisions. Obamacare has impacted American society through lowered premiums, deductibles, and cost-sharing in the affordable care act. It has reduced the cost of medical services and medical supplies like drugs. The policy also impacted the county politically through rivalries in political parties, and it underwent severe political intrigue and maneuvering. Still, it was finally approved by the House of Representatives and implemented in 2010. Its effectiveness has been witnessed through improved access to healthcare services. The policy had several provisions that led to affordable healthcare delivery. Tax credits were created for small businesses that provided health coverage to their workers; thus, more businesses could provide medical coverage services to their employees. Health care facilities also realized improved accountability in their service through efficient and quality delivery of care. The policy was also in sync with the patient-centered approach, which created a mutual understanding between care providers and the patients. It also ANALYZING POLICY 3 ensured funding provisions to voluntary home visiting initiatives where mothers and young children who lived in remote locations could be reached, thus receive care. The program ensured increased individual responsibility among all Americans through obtaining insurance coverage. Stakeholders in the Affordable Care Act There were numerous stakeholders involved in the creation and implementation of the Affordable Care Act. They included the federal government, health insurance providers, commercial groups related to and affected by the policy, various political parties, the National Republican Congressional Committee, the Supreme Court, and the United States of America’s citizens (Irigoyen, 2017). All these stakeholders were reflected in the broad spectrum of opinions and inputs regarding implementing the health policy. Other vital stakeholders included healthcare providers, health policy experts, consumers, and certified application counselors. However, the policy’s key stakeholders were the patients, service providers, financial payers, and policymakers. Interest groups in Obamacare included representatives or lobbyists from insurance companies, medical device manufacturers, doctor representatives, patients, and employers. The interest groups were either for or against the Affordable care act policy, including its programs like Medicaid. Role of Stakeholders The federal government in the US has played a significant role in healthcare over the years. It has the governing responsibility that affects the country’s growth and equal treatment of all Americans. It plays a significant role in healthcare through its laws, regulations, policies, payment systems, and oversights of federal programs that directly or indirectly impact healthcare delivery to Americans, which may be private or federal. Through legislation of the Affordable ANALYZING POLICY 4 Care Act, the federal government illustrated how the government addresses inadequacies in federal healthcare by promoting an emphasis on disease prevention and health promotion to improve health outcomes and reduce the cost of healthcare (Straube, 2013). Apart from the Affordable Care Act, the federal government has the statutory authority to effect change in America’s healthcare system. This authority enables it to address deficiencies in the quality and value of healthcare provided to us citizens. The federal authority extends beyond national healthcare programs to the private sectors like payers and providers, state and local governments, pharmaceutical and device manufacturers, and other private healthcare stakeholders. The federal government also took up the role of covering 90% of the Medicaid costs. State governments in the formulation and implementation of the ACA also had varied roles. Among others, they had the authority to oversee individual, small and large group insurance markets, manage the Medicaid program, access and run their insurance marketplace and set up risk adjustment and rate review programs in their states (Collins & Lambrew, 2019). Through executive actions, the states were also given choices like defining health benefits package within federal parameters and renewing plans on how to deal with those who do not comply with ACA insurance reforms. Both state and federal governments regulate health insurance business practices. Health insurance providers had the role of providing affordable insurance rates and services to US citizens. For instance, the insurance companies came up with various insurance plans to cover people of all econ0mic dimensions. They included the gold plans, silver plans, and bronze plans. Insurance companies had the role of making affordable and adequate health insurance coverage (Ahn, 2015). Like hospitals and medical practitioners, service providers had the role of implementing Obamacare through service delivery. They could control how changes were implemented into the day-to-day service and healthcare delivery. US citizens also played a ANALYZING POLICY 5 role in ACA by ensuring the acquisition of an insurance plan. The policy was a way to ensure that the uninsured people obtained health insurance cover. It was a mandate, or one receives a tax penalty. Political affiliations also played a role in making people aware of Obamacare and raising concerns about the insurance policy. Their various clashes and discussions called the people’s attention to the new insurance policy, making people, even those who might have been uninterested, take an interest in the insurance policy. Description of Two Stake Holders in the Affordable Care Act The federal government is placed at the healthcare industry center while also controlling state interests and priorities. They have the political influence of creating policies and rules to be adhered to in the health system and implementing care objectives and programs. The federal governments and state governments have governing responsibilities. The federal governments provide most financing and subsidizing coverage and set federal floor for insurance market regulations. And have the flexibility to implement the laws. Federal politics aim to give responsibility to states, thus expand the federal role. The Affordable Care Act has been politicized among politicians and political affiliations. A democrat passed Obamacare. Republicans have been known to want changes or repeal Obamacare. Republican congressmen, governors, and other Republican candidates have been known to oppose Obamacare, and polls have been repeatedly done to repeal the policy. In recent years they have tried to regain senate control because attacking Obamacare is no longer politically advantageous. Republicans had, for a long time, been anti-Obamacare and used the slogan to wi the 2010 and 2014 national elections while democrats embraced the policy, which has helped them continue to achieve the supremacy of the House. ANALYZING POLICY 6 Reviews on ACA Years after its implementations, ACA remains at the forefront of public debate. It represents a historic achievement of the US healthcare reform went though it remains to be a matter of contention. It has left a mark on the healthcare system by expanding insurance coverage and improving the healthcare system (McIntyre & Song, 2019). Obamacare was the most monumental change in the US health care system since the implementation of Medicaid and Medicare. The ACA is applauded for increasing the number of insured people in recent years to more than 20 million. However, about 6 million people lost their insurance coverage and had to look for alternative content (L, S, RM & JA, 2017). Opinions from people include that the ACA has increased the cost of health insurance, the government should not tell people what to do, ACA challenges should be diffused, and the current government should not pay for other people’s problems (Gordon, Gray, Hollingsworth, Shapiro & Dalen, 2017). This shows that some people may be dissatisfied with the Obamacare program. The health policy has also been opposed by Republicans and private sector conservatives who see it as inappropriate government legislation (“CardioPulse Articles,” 2014). They view it as an unwanted intrusion into the personal affairs of businesses and individuals. ANALYZING POLICY 7 References Ahn, S. (2015). The Affordable Care Act and Insurer Business Practices. Retrieved 15 November 2020, from https://journalofethics.ama-assn.org/article/affordable-care-act-and-insurerbusiness-practices/2015-08 CardioPulse Articles. (2014). European Heart Journal, 35(36), 2433-2440. doi: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehu287 Collins, S., & Lambrew, J. (2019). Federalism, the Affordable Care Act, and Health Reform in the 2020 Election | Commonwealth Fund. Retrieved 15 November 2020, from https://www.commonwealthfund.org/publications/fund-reports/2019/jul/federalismaffordable-care-act-health-reform-2020-election Gordon, P., Gray, L., Hollingsworth, A., Shapiro, E., & Dalen, J. (2017). Opposition to Obamacare. Academic Medicine, 92(9), 1241-1247. Doi: 10.1097/acm.0000000000001725 Irigoyen, C. (2017). The Affordable Care Act in the US (Obamacare) – Centre for Public Impact (CPI). Retrieved 15 November 2020, from https://www.centreforpublicimpact.org/casestudy/affordable-care-act-usobamacare/#:~:text=There%20were%20numerous%20stakeholders%20involved,Court%2 C%20and%20the%20general%20public. ANALYZING POLICY 8 L, M., S, H., RM, B., & JA, H. (2017). A Critical Analysis of Obamacare: Affordable Care or Insurance for Many and Coverage for Few? Retrieved 15 November 2020, from https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28339427/ McIntyre, A., & Song, Z. (2019). The US Affordable Care Act: Reflections and directions at the close of a decade. PLOS Medicine, 16(2), e1002752. doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1002752 Straube, B. (2013). A Role for Government. American Journal Of Preventive Medicine, 44(1), S39-S42. doi: 10.1016/j.amepre.2012.09.009 Running Head: HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE OF THE FEDERAL POLICIES Historical perspective of a federal policy Lukeldic Harris PAD 510 October 21, 2020 Professor Timothy Smith 1 HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE OF THE FEDERAL POLICIES 2 Historical perspective of a federal policy The Affordable Care Act is one of the federal policies developed and implemented under the leadership of President Obama in the United States of America. The ACA, public health policy has contributed to a variety of changes, and revision of the health care policies initially implemented to ensure efficient patient safety and health care. This has adequately resulted in the reformation of the healthcare systems, through the expansion of the patient’s coverage to over 20 million Americans and thus attributed to quality care and more life-saving. Historical perspective The road to healthcare transformation in America has recorded safe travel through the years and under different leadership implications through the years. Since 1945 under the Truman’s Administration, the healthcare proposals have been on unending debates and this being on the post-war era when the government system attempted to reform the healthcare systems. Whiles some of the attempts succeeded through the year’s others failed drastically cause uglier and divisive scenes in the delivery of quality care among the populations. One of the failed proposals by president Truman included the universal health insurance coverage, and this was described as socialized medicine, causing the failure of the proposal. However, through the years, more of the administrations proved their interest in reforming the healthcare sector, and thus the success of the Affordable Care Act under President Obama’s administration that led to improved health for all the Americans to ease inaccessibility. In his administration president, Obama promised the public of ensuring equality in accessing health care services through the quality and affordable healthcare services as all American’s rights. Today, the implementation of the act can be confirmed as successful with HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE OF THE FEDERAL POLICIES 3 more than 20million adults in the American community have gained easy access to health coverage, and thus driving the rate of the uninsured populations below 10%, as the lowest level ever recorded in the American history. Through his administration, Obama managed to ensure a stronger and healthier American community through the transformation of the public health and enhancement of innovations to fit in the healthcare sector and fulfill the health needs of the population. Having been implemented in the year 2010, the Affordable act was needed urgently by the American population to transform the private insurance market raging from the individual to the small group buyers. Also, the designing and implementation of the act were to expand the Medicaid program among the poor in the community and thus ensuring health equality in the delivery of care services for all. The development and implementation of the ACA policy sought to also ensure the creation and implementation of informed decisions concerning the safety welfare in terms of the population’s health and thus the transformation of the medical decisions, and all these have so far been fulfilled with new health policy. Social, economic and political environments following the implementation of the policy The development of the Obamacare highly has impacted the entire American society greatly as through its implementation the Americans have adequately enjoyed lower premiums, deductibles, and effectiveness in the cost-sharing among the senior citizens and the disabled population (Malaszczyk, & Malaszczyk, 2020). The program also resulted in reduced drug prescription costs, and thus ensuring individuals from different social groups could afford quality and safe healthcare services. Some of the various social, economic factors that led to the implementation of the healthcare policy included the increased level of health disparities among the populations that resulted from high poverty levels, inequality in education levels and also lack of employment among these groups. The variety of social disparities led to inequality in HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE OF THE FEDERAL POLICIES 4 accessing quality care services due to lack of sufficient cash to pay for the medical care services, and this eventually had larger of the population unhealthy. Lack of information and awareness concerning the various means through which the population could ensure self-responsibility concerning their health condition. Additionally, among the senior adults and the disabled, these groups required special healthcare standards to ensure sufficient support to their needs through the community. Most of these groups experienced challenges in satisfying their medical needs as most lacked sufficient funds to pay for the medical services and thus posing inequality in the community. Politically, during the time through which the healthcare policy was under implementation, there existed a massive political rivalry between the two political parties and the members of the parties and these resulted to painful political processes in the course of the implementation. Additionally, the political rivalry led to divisive and bitter partisans in the debate concerning the public health policy option that was exposed through the internet and media, concerning the charges of the socialized medical care (Healthcare Reform History, 2020). The implementation of the ACA policy underwent severe political intrigue and maneuvering but later received approval by the House of Representatives and thus its implementation in the year 2010. Policy effectiveness Upon the implementation of the affordable care act, over time, its effectiveness has been witnessed through the improved access to health care services. Through the policy, the health coverage policy considers to cover dependent children up to the age of 26. Also, it has ensured expansion on the Medicaid to all the adults that were initially considered ineligible due to their low level of income and thus ensuring equality in the delivery of care (Gaffney,& McCormick, 2017). Through the implementation of the policy, its effectiveness was witnessed through the HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE OF THE FEDERAL POLICIES 5 increased individual responsibility among all the Americans to pay for the insurance coverage and thus ensuring their safety appropriately. The policy furthered to ensure the provision of funding to the voluntary home-visiting initiative in support of mothers and their young children living in the underserved communities and thus ensuring the effectiveness of the program. The implementation of the ACA rendered the health care and coverage more affordable through the establishment of financial pools to assist individuals and families that could not afford the full payment of the medical bills (French et al. 2016). In this policy, the small businesses that were concerned with the provision of health coverage to their employees were considered and thus creating tax credits for these businesses. Through the implementation of the policy, the health care facilities realized improved accountability among the care providers, efficiency and the delivery of quality care. This ensured development of transparent care systems where the patients were involved in the effective decision making concerning the most efficient and preferred health care and treatment provision. Additionally, the improvement was in line with the establishment of patient-centred care to ensure a mutual level of communication between the care provider and the patients to ensure a clear understanding of the medical history and thus the administration of the most effective care to ensure client satisfaction. HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE OF THE FEDERAL POLICIES 6 References Healthcare Reform History (2020) retrieved from https://www.beckershospitalreview.com/newsanalysis/a-brief-history-on-the-road-to-healthcare-reform-from-truman-to-obama.html French, M. T., Homer, J., Gumus, G., & Hickling, L. (2016). Key provisions of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA): a systematic review and presentation of early research findings. Health services research, 51(5), 1735-1771. Gaffney, A., & McCormick, D. (2017). The Affordable Care Act: implications for healthcare equity. The Lancet, 389(10077), 1442-1452. Malaszczyk, K. M., & Malaszczyk, J. M. (2020). SOCIOECONOMIC IMPACT OF HEALTH CARE. JBET, 1, 63. …
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