CJ408 Final Exam 100% Correct Answers


When we trust the judgments of people who have special training, such as a doctor or a lawyer, we are accepting their ______.

  1. A) Wisdom
  2. B) Expertise
  3. C) Authority
  4. D) Word


What are the four purposes of research?

  1. A) Exploration, description, explanation, application
  2. B) Exploration, description, funding, application
  3. C) Exploration, development, inquisition, funding
  4. D) Exploration, development, inquisition, application


When assessing the potential for harm, the researcher should ___.

  1. A) Proceed only when they are confident that no harm will result.
  2. B) Proceed only when the harm potential is psychological and not physical
  3. C) Never proceed when harm is a potential
  4. D) Proceed when the benefit outweighs the harm


Researchers may face legal liability when _____.

  1. A) Researchers refuse to work with their subjects
  2. B) They become participants in the criminal activity they are observing
  3. C) Both of the above
  4. D) Fortunately, researchers are protected from legal liability


Which of the following would serve as an example of a cross sectional study?

  1. A) Uniform Crime Reports
  2. B) The 2000 U.S. census
  3. C) A single wave of the National Crime Victimization Survey(P 66)
  4. D) Both Uniform Crime Reports and the 2000 U.S. census


Which of the following are social artifacts?

  1. A) Citizen attitudes about the death penalty
  2. B) Editorials in the New York Times (P63)
  3. C) Cities with over 250,000 inhabitants
  4. D) Months of the year


Units of analysis are typically also the units of _____.

  1. A) Observation (P71)
  2. B) Crime
  3. C) Interaction
  4. D) Fallacy


An indicator of the dimension “victim harm” is _____.

  1. A) Economic gain
  2. B) Gender of victim
  3. C) Physical injury (P77)
  4. D) Location of injury


A _____ asks people whether or not they have been the victim of a crime.

  1. A) Self-reported survey
  2. B) Victim survey (P94)
  3. C) Computer-based survey
  4. D) Random survey


The true list of elements in the population is called the _____.

  1. A) Parameter
  2. B) Sampling frame (P144)
  3. C) Population
  4. D) Sample


The unit about which information is gathered and forms the basis for analysis is known as _____.

  1. A) A sampling element (P136)
  2. B) A unit of observation
  3. C) A sampling frame
  4. D) A sample


The term “questionnaire” suggests a collection of _____.

  1. A) Statements (P164)
  2. B) Concepts
  3. C) Conclusions
  4. D) Ideas


If a researcher tries to assess criminal victimization of the poor and disadvantaged, which of the following is less biased than using the term “welfare” in her questionnaire?

  1. A) Assistance to the poor (P165)
  2. B) On the dole
  3. C) The underclass
  4. D) Poverty


Which of the following would not be a logical crime to study using the field research techniques?

  1. A) Prostitution
  2. B) Shoplifting (P189)
  3. C) Embezzlement
  4. D) Drug use


What time of the year would be best to do an observational study of thefts from cars parked at shopping malls?

  1. A) Early in the year, January – February
  2. B) Early summer, June – July
  3. C) Late summer, August
  4. D) Late in the year, December (P201)


FBI statistics and annual reports from the Federal Bureau of Prisons are examples of _____.

  1. A) Nonpublic agency records
  2. B) New data collected by agency staff
  3. C) Published statistics (P220)
  4. D) Content analysis


Programs goals represent _____.

  1. A) Empirical indicators
  2. B) Desired outcomes (P244)
  3. C) Inputs
  4. D) Standards


Which of the following represent a continuous variable?

  1. A) Gender
  2. B) Race
  3. C) Age (unable to find page number)
  4. D) Religious affiliation


Which of the following represents a discrete variable?

  1. A) Gender
  2. B) Annual salary (unable to find page number)
  3. C) Age
  4. D) Hours worked


In calculating the rate of rapes within New York City, which of the following would appear to be the best data for the denominator?

  1. A) Females living in New York City
  2. B) All people living in New York City (unable to find page number)
  3. C) All males living in New York City since nearly all rapes are committed by males
  4. D) Females over the age of 21 living in New York City