PHL 320 Critical Thinking and Decision Making in Business Entire Course


PHL 320 Week 1 Critical Thinking Discussion and Summary


Participate in a class discussion by responding to the following questions:

  • How would you define critical thinking? What makes a person a critical thinker?
  • Why is critical thinking important? Provide an example of how critical thinking has helped you in your life.
  • What do you expect to learn from this course?

Write a paragraph summarizing the discussion.



PHL 320 Week 1 Knowledge Check


PHL 320 Week 2 Globalization Argumentative Paper



Review the Writing Argumentative Essays section in Ch. 3 of Critical Thinking

Write an argumentative paper of no more than 750 words that demonstrates why globalization is good or not good for a business. The paper should define the term good, and should identify the premises and conclusions.

Identify the premise and conclusion by placing a number in bold at the beginning of the sentence with the word premise or conclusion. For example: (1, Premise), (2, Premise), (1, Conclusion), (2, Conclusion), and so on.

  • Sentences labeled as “1, premise” are premises for the sentence labeled as “1, conclusion.”
  • All premises should be labeled for each conclusion in the article. If a sentence is a conclusion and a premise for another conclusion, place two labels.
  • At the end of the paper, identify one example of how you used deductive reasoning and one example of how you used inductive reasoning.

Format your paper consistent with APA guidelines.



PHL 320 Week 2 Re-organization and Layoff Team Discussion & Summary


Review the linked articles and select one to review as a team.

Post responses to the following questions for the selected article.  Each team member should answer all of the questions:

  • What is the problem presented in the article?
  • Why do you think it is the problem?
  • What are some possible solutions?

Discuss as a team, responding to your teammates’ posts.

Write a 3-paragraph synopsis that summarizes the team’s discussion.


PHL 320 Week 2 Week 2 Knowledge Check


PHL 320 Week 3 Rhetorical Strategies and Fallacies Worksheet


Complete the University of Phoenix Material: Rhetorical Strategies and Fallacies Worksheet.


PHL 320 Week 3 Re-organization and Layoff: Issue and Problem Identification Paper


Review the  discussion from Week 2.

Write a paper of no more than 1,050 words that incorporates ideas from the discussion. The paper should do the following:

  • Summarize the issue.
  • Identify the problem.
  • Explain why this is the underlying problem.
  • Reflect on the group collaboration process in defining the problem.
  • Explain how a clearly defined problem could help you find the solutions.

Format your paper consistent with APA guidelines.


PHL 320 Week 3 Knowledge Check


PHL 320 Week 4 SWOT and Strategy Evaluation Paper


Select an industry, such as the gambling industry, to complete a SWOT analysis.

Access the profile overview for the selected industry:

  • In the University Library, click Company Directory and Financials.
  • Click Hoover’s First Research.
  • Click Continue.
  • Click Submit.
  • Type gambling (or your selected industry) in the search box, and click to continue.
  • Gambling (or the selected industry of choice) should be first in the list.

Read the industry profile overview, including the website links, on the page.

Complete a SWOT analysis for the selected industry. The SWOT analysis allows a business to understand how a competitor is positioned in the environment by assessing its strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats. An understanding of a competitor’s position can be a key for a business to determine where funding and resources should be allotted to create new products or services.

Use information in the industry profile overview and other scholarly sources as needed. The SWOT analysis should include each of the following:

  • Strengths
  • Weaknesses
  • Opportunities
  • Threats

Write a 1,050- to 1,500-word paper, including the following attributes:

  • SWOT analysis, including a SWOT chart
    • Identify opportunities (either product or service) that could improve the customer experience.
  • Strategy evaluation
    • Define strategic tasks.
    • Assess the industry’s capabilities.
    • Identify the barriers to strategy implementation.
  • A response to the following:
    • Based on the SWOT analysis and strategy evaluation, what are some creative actions the industry can pursue to include innovation as a component of their strategy?

Format your paper consistent with APA guidelines.


PHL 320 Week 4 Re-Organization and Layoff: Solutions Paper


Select two potential creative solutions for the problems you identified in the Re-organization and Layoff assignment in Week 2.


Write a paper of no more than 1,050 words to present the solutions and explain why each will work.

Include a summary of methods your teams utilized to develop the creative solution.

Describe how your team overcame barriers to deciding on the solutions.


PHL 320 Week 5 Labor Practices Paper


A clothing company uses sweatshop labor to manufacture clothing products that contribute to low pricing, which is a consumer want.

Many companies have engaged in sweatshop labor. Did the clothing company engage in unethical labor practices by utilizing sweatshop labor?

Research sweatshop labor.

Write a paper of no more than 750 words to present your position on sweatshop labor and provide justification. Include the following:

  • How consumer demands affect a company’s business decision
  • How different ethical perspectives guide ethical decision making
  • How a company influences their ethical environment

Format your paper consistent with APA guidelines.


PHL 320 Week 5 Re-organization and Layoff: Decision Making Evaluation Paper


Write a paper of no more than 750 words to include the following elements:

  • Select a recommendation from the two creative solutions identified in Week 4 for solving the problem.
  • Explain why the solution would help the middle-income customer. Provide credible sources to support your decision.
  • Explain what business decision an organization should make based on the solution.
  • For the business decision chosen, explain the resources an organization would need to implement that decision and factors that might affect the implementation.

Format your paper consistent with APA guidelines.


PHL 320 Final Exam Answers



Who among the following individuals is most likely to exhibit event creativity?​

​An individual who establishes win-win relationships with other people

​An individual who settles a disagreement quickly in an ingenious way

​An individual who modifies the strategies of a group in a creative manner

​An individual who organizes annual meetings and get-togethers innovatively





When does the incremental model of decision making take place?

​When individuals merely follow the instructions of others who are experts in decision making

​When individuals vie with one another for resources or disagree with each other on goals

​When individuals make quick decisions based on their past experience in solving similar problems

​When individuals make minor decisions and move carefully toward a bigger solution





​In the stages of decision making, what should managers do immediately after identifying and diagnosing a problem?

​Managers should create some alternative solutions to solve the issue recognized.

​Managers should select a solution, from the options available, that offers the greatest benefit.

​Managers should assign responsibility to specific individuals for implementing the solution identified to solve the problem.

​Managers should think through the outcomes that might result from implementing any of the plans identified to solve the problem.





​As a barrier to effective decision making, when do framing effects occur?

​When decision makers believe they can influence events without having adequate control

​When the selection of an alternative is influenced by the way it is phrased

​When decision makers choose the first available alternative before proper evaluation

​When the selection of an alternative is completely based on one’s past experience





​Which of the following acts represents scapegoating?

​Bringing a new topic into a conversation so as to distract the original discussion

​Hanging a scary picture in front of a person to force him into doing something

​Accusing a particular group of people for all the troubles faced in one’s life

​Permitting one’s wishes and hopes to tint his or her views that affect judgment





How can organizational politics that impacts organizational decisions be reduced?

​By making the decision-making process a collaborative task

​By encouraging team members to engage in affective conflict

​By motivating team members to be confrontational

​By creating different goals for individual team members





Which of the following is considered a change-specific reason for employees’ resistance to change?

​Group conformity pressures

​Desire to maintain the status quo

​Lack of clarity in the process

​Inappropriate timing





​What is true of the features used to judge a person’s credibility?

​Individuals can accurately determine a person’s credibility based on physical characteristics.

​Well-educated individuals can be highly relied upon as guides to ethical values.

​Ethnicity, gender, and accent are inapt characteristics for judging credibility.

​Mannerisms and age are two valid features that can be used to judge a person’s credibility.





​Which of the following is considered a general reason for employees’ resistance to change?

​Misleading information

​Lack of clarity in the process

​Inappropriate timing

​Focus on one’s own interests





What is a fact related to strategic planning?

​It recognizes the explicit measures essential at an organization’s lower levels.

​It translates broad tactical goals and objectives into specific operational goals.

​It is the responsibility of the frontline managers to develop strategic plans.

​It has a time horizon that ranges from 3 to 7 years to decades (at times).





Which of the following is most likely to block new ideas from evolving within an organization?​

​Managers willing to vary the existing hierarchical structure of the organization

​Management eliminating bureaucratic rules and procedures which in turn causes chaos

​Employees being concerned about the likely changes to the products, processes, and budgets

​Workers fearlessly looking for ways to break the monotony created by their jobs





​Identify an example of spontaneous creativity.

​Organizing annual meetings and get-togethers innovatively

​Settling a disagreement quickly in a simple way

​Establishing win-win relationships with other people

​Modifying the strategies and procedures of a group





In the context of moving people to change, what should managers do to unfreeze?​

​Managers should enable employees to realize that some of the old ways of doing things are still the best.

​Managers should convey to employees the difference that exists between their firms’ existing and expected performance.

​Managers should give employees all details and facts about the change process regardless of whether it induces anxiety in them.

​Manager should communicate an issue in such a way that it arouses defensiveness among employees which in turn quickens unfreezing.





​Which of the following is likely to improve a group’s decision making process?

​Group member staying focused on short-term outcomes

​Team members completely agreeing with one another’s perspectives

​Cognitive conflict that is personal rather than task related

​Differences in group members’ viewpoints on the issue being discussed





​Identify a subjective claim from the following examples.

​”God exists.”

​”Flu is contagious.”

​”Italy has the best food.”

​”Mars has two moons.”





When is a valid argument considered as being sound?

​When its premise is false

​When its conclusion is supported

​When its premise is true

​When its conclusion is not supported





Identify the drawback of utilitarianism.​

​It gives less importance to the consequences of actions.

​It fails to weigh the pros and cons of actions.

​It fails to consider the intentions of actions.

​It is not suitable for choosing an outcome that maximizes happiness.






Who among the following individuals is most likely to be a victim of wishful thinking fallacy?​

​One who wishes to only use an alternative that solves a problem completely

​One whose beliefs and decisions are affected by his or her needs and desires

​One who blindly overestimates the decision making skills of one’s own group

​One whose decisions are made merely based on past experience or expert advice






During internal resource analysis of the strategic management process, what does operations analysis involve?

​An analysis of a firm’s strengths and weaknesses in human resource planning and labor relations

​An analysis of a firm’s financial strengths and weaknesses through the use of balance sheet

​An analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of a firm’s manufacturing and production activities

​An analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of a firm’s marketing and promotional activities






How does a person reason deductively?​

​By trying to demonstrate a premise

​By trying to prove a conclusion

​By trying to support a conclusion

​By trying to negate a finding






When does the straw man fallacy occur?

​When a person considers only two alternatives even when other options are available

​When a critic falsifies or overstates an adversary’s position

​When a decision maker dismisses an alternative that fails to solve the issue completely

​When a person tries to disprove a claim based on its source






​Annie, an employee, who often attributes her team’s failures to bad luck, attributes the failures of other teams to their personal shortcomings. Which of the following cognitive biases do Annie’s attributions exemplify?

​Hindsight bias

​In-group bias

​Belief bias

​Self-deception bias






Identify the statement that accurately describes the Sarbanes-Oxley Act.​

​Unlike other Acts, its violations do not result in fines or prosecutions.

​It was passed to promote business ethics by creating legal requirements.

​Complying with the Act saves time and money, but deteriorates efficiency.

​It requires businesses to have only company insiders as board directors.






In the context of levels of planning, what would be the responsibility of a frontline manager?​

​To translate broad strategic plans into precise goals and objectives

​To determine the organization’s long-term strategic objectives

​To develop and implement a tactical plan for each organizational department

​To recognize the explicit measures essential at an organization’s lower levels






​Which statement best describes a conglomerate diversification strategy?

​It is corporate strategy in which a company vertically integrates to include supply chain activities.

​It is a growth strategy in which a company tries sell its products in new diverse markets.

​It is a corporate strategy in which a company expands its operations into unrelated businesses.

​It is a growth strategy in which a company tries to differentiate its products from that of rivalry.






Which of the following questions is useful to be considered in the first stage of decision making?​

​What are the resources and activities required to implement the decision as planned?

​Is there a discrepancy between the way things are and the way things ought to be?

​What kinds of problems are likely to be faced if the chosen alternative is implemented?

​Are there any solutions implemented previously to a problem similar to the present one?






What should a leader do to effectively manage group decision making?​

​Encourage team members to engage in groupthink

​Promote the use of satisficing to quicken the process

​Avoid letting a team member to dominate the discussion

​Criticize team members who fail to suggest good alternatives






​In the context of cognitive biases, when does the false consensus effect occur?

​When one instinctively assigns a probability to an event based on past experience

​When one unconsciously aligns his or her thoughts with that of others

​When one assumes that one’s own and others’ attitudes are shared by society at large

​When one agrees with a generalized statement based on a single report






Which of the following is an objective claim?

“Math is easier than science.”

​”Italy has the best food.”

​”Rice vinegar is too sweet.”

​”Mars has two moons.”






Sam, a marketing manager, often makes ethical decisions based on what others feel about those decisions. He often considers opinions from other managers and employees. Which of the following ethical systems do Sam’s decisions follow?